Welcome to the United Nations | Department of Economic and Social Affairs

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in João Pessoa, Brazil, from 10 to 13 November 2015. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 



>> MODERATOR: There are plenty of spaces at the desk if you want to make yourselves more comfortable, please move forward and take a place. There's only going to be a few of us here at the front. So all of those spaces are available to anybody from the audience. Please move up.

>> Please do. We welcome everyone to the table.

Okay. We're going to get started because I know we are right at a wonderful time of the day, at lunchtime. So we greatly appreciate you coming out this afternoon. My name is Karen McCabe. I'm with the IEEE where I'm a senior director overseeing our technology, policy and global affairs. I reside primarily in the standards part of the organisation.

And today we're here to sort of give an overview of the IEEE but in the context of IGF and what we're here this week to do and what we have done.

You know, it's been a tremendous week here with all the sessions and workshops and even at our booth we've met so many passionate people about the topics and the issues. And it's really been quite an honour to be here this week. We're really inspired by the energy and the passion of all the attendees here. And I know it's Friday. It's the end of the week. Probably have a little fatigue going. So initially when they put us on Friday, I was like oh, it's a tough day to have a session, the last day. But I think it's also beneficial because we had the whole week to really take it all in, hear the dialogue and the discussions so that we can present IEEE in that context in the topics that are sort of on the table and what we're trying to do collectively as a community.

So today as I mentioned, this is really not about us talking about the IEEE. We really want to have an open dialogue, answer any questions that you may have. But in order to make sense of that for you, we do have a few slides to kind of walk through, sort of set the stage about what the organisation is and what we do.

For those not familiar with IEEE, it's a pretty large organisation and it has many, many pieces and aspects and entry points, if you will., all doing great work with our mission statement to advance technology for the benefit of humanity.

And we do a lot of work in, if you will, technologies that impact or the Internet and related aspects of privacy and cyber security. So we're here to talk about that.

We definitely want to frame it in a couple, if you want to call them case studies, if you will, of two major initiatives that we have. One is our IEEE Internet initiative and Jim will talk about that. I'll introduce our panel in a second. And then we have a tremendous initiative in the Internet of Things. As we've been hearing all week, we sort of can't separate the Internet from the Internet of Things. These things are really going hand‑in‑hand. And the Internet of Things coming on is really sort of bringing, making even more important the discussions and the topics and the issues that we need to address.

So that will be sort of a focus area. Call it a case study. But that will focus much of our discussion around.

So I'm honored today to be here with my colleagues. So I'll introduce them briefly. We have Justin Caso who works with me in our standards group where he oversees our deep dives, I like to call it, to a lot of the challenges and issues and prep for these events have.

We have Mary Lynn Nielsen, who is the Director of our global operations outreach programmes.

So honored to have Roberta Minerva with us. He's the chairman of our Internet of Things and also associated with telecom arkelia.

And Jim who is our programme director for our Internet initiative, if you will.

So again thank you for joining us, especially at lunchtime.

So we're going get started. Who will go here?

So don't necessarily want to read all the slides. I know that could be a little boring. But again the IEEE is a very renowned organisation. It's been around for probably over 130 years. Hit some history with combining with different organizations. But our core mission is to advance technical innovation in the profession so that we can benefit humanity. And we'll walk through some aspects of how it does that. And you can see our vision statement up there, as well. So we'll just kind of go through that quickly.

So just to sort of set the stage for the organisation. As I mentioned, it's kind of large. There's many aspects to it. We have over 426,000 members around the world in about 126 countries. And the foundation, if you will, or the pillars of the organisation are its technical societies and councils. So they range from our computer society, communications, aerospace, vehicular technology. So it's quite large.

I think I hit the thing by mistake. Sorry about that. Also IEEE has the power of convening, in a sense. We hold many, many conferences around the world. We have 1600 annually in all parts of the world. And they're really done through our technical societies and our communities. It really is a community‑based organisation. And that's sort of the foundation of that. And it's comprised of chapters and sections. So for local interest and needs, groups of communities can come together in the geographic and technical regions, as well.

So just sort of an overview of our global communities, as I mentioned, we have our geographic sections. So folks who want to get together in different geographic regions of the world can do that through that means.

We have our societies and councils that I talked about that are going maybe a little bit of deeper dive into particular technical topics. So it's sort of like‑minded folks coming together.

The chapters, as well. They're associated with their technical homes, if you will, within the societies. But they're doing a sort of on‑the‑groundwork with localised issues.

And then we have affinity groups. And one that I really want to highlight is our women in engineering group where we're looking to provide venues and opportunities for women in the engineering profession.

So, you know, the wonderful thing about the IEEE, it's a bottom‑up organisation. Our communities are self‑organising in a sense. We have society structures to put some frameworks around them, but if there's an interest around technical topics and issues and challenges of today, communities can come together. So, again, being an organisation has a fabulous history and structure, we have venues that people can come into, sort of prebuilt for them, if you want. But that doesn't mean ‑‑ we're definitely looking for fresh ideas and new people all the time. But if there's a new idea, especially as we're looking at converging technology and emerging technologies, we're very, very interested in bringing those into our organization, as well. And a little bit later in the presentation, we'll talk about some of our future directions initiatives that are really sort of set up to address those emerging and converging technologies and how we have some dedicated efforts to address some of those.

I think I hit upon this a little bit already, but we are an organisation that's sort of rooted in these values of being open and transparent. OPCON census, of transnational, if you will, international cooperation. That's how we convene sort of the best the and brightest minds together to address challenges and to tackle some issues at hand.

So at this point we're going to try to make this a little interactive. I just wanted to get the boring stuff out of the way first and then we will get into some more meaty stuff and have some dialogue around it. So I will hand this over to nary Lynn Nielsen who will walk us through a couple slides of what we have for our communities here.

>> Mary: And indeed what we do have I would like to just illustrate are just a few of the programmes that we offer that go into a bit more detail that offer a bit more of ability to interact with IEEE and grow your relationship with them.

Of course one of the major topics in the world right now is open access to information about technology. And IEEE is working to produce that for you. And it's dog it in several ways. They have what they now call hybrid online journals. Some of the articles will be open access, some of them won't. But the advantage is that you can look at this online at any point, check them and find them.

In addition they are now producing several journals that are completely and utterly open access. And they're covering a wide variety of subjects. A couple that I have here are engineering and health in medicine. Electron devices and emerging topics in computing. These are utterly open access journals that IEEE is making available through its website. And I would encourage you to go to IEE.org and find out more.

Finally they have a journal that is just 100 percent open access on a variety of topics and so they're just calling that IEEE access instead of focusing on this technical subject, that technical subject. That one is very useful, I think, for seeing some of the breadth of that. And I encourage you to share this with others to help them know what we're offering in that.

IEEE has a very strong wing dedicated to education and we have a number of programmes that are there to help students and educators prepare the next generation of technologists and inform current technologists about the advances in their field. I encourage everyone to take a look at those. There are a lot of opportunities and tools being made available not only for the post educational certification but also at the university level to help students learn to help educators educate. You can check that out on our web site as well.

But looking at that level of education, and one of the most exciting things I've seen is the youth at IGF programme. We wanted to highlight a few things that are freely available for students to determine whether technology interests them. We have programmes you can find at tryengineering.org. Trycomputing.org that are there to let you examine certain technologies and see: Does that interest me?

Would I be interested in a career in that? As an educator, it's a tool for students. Particularly these will help students who are looking at universities to see whether this is the right programme for them. As well there are tools for the educators. We also offer a teacher inservice programme to bring some of those many experts, as Karen mentioned, those over 400,000 experts. Many of them are willing to come to universities and to schools to speak about their levels of expertise. And we call that a teacher inservice programme. That's something that you can take advantage of wherever you may be, we can help you connect with the people who would support that programme.

As Karen mentioned, we do have a women in engineering programme. I had the privilege of sharing some information about that yesterday at another workshop. And it is interesting to note that the IEEE has the largest technical programme in the world devoted to well, over 15,000 members. That's a small percentage of the overall membership, but it's growing. And I think that aspirational goal is there.

One of the most interesting things I read in their mission statement is that their goal is [No audio.]

Technical fields we all know that's a very challenging subject today.

As Karen told you, we have a mission, and that mission is advancing technology for humanity. We take those last two words very seriously. For humanity. To do something for people. These are just a couple of examples of IEEE's humanitarian programmes. There are actually a large number of these that you could dig into. But I think the thing that's most interesting is that through our smart cities programme, we're also now encouraging a smart village programme to bring down at the local and rural level tools to empower these communities when they are not easily connected to a grid, to be able to find ways to build businesses, to build programmes, to build services so that we can elevate these communities and bring them closer to our global connectivity that so many of us are taking advantage of today.

The second programme we highlighted is one that lets secondary students combine with their local service organizations and its mutual training. The service organizations are educating the students. And the students are bringing to the service organizations their new ideas, their new thoughts and directions that we could pursue.

There are many more programmes. These are just a few that we wanted to highlight.

A little about the association that Karen mentioned, the subject of standards have come up many times here at IGF and about the need for standards to be able to build interoperability and portability for technology. That's going to enable the growth of what we need for the platforms at IGF to succeed and how IIEEE does that is through its standards of organisation. It's a large part of the IEEE. It's a strong global part of the IEEE. Interestingly it's a part of the IEEE you can belong and also companies can belong since the aspect of industrial interest is crucial to the success of an implementation of a standard, having it used and deployed in the field.

It is a collaborative platform. And it's interesting to hear many of the discussions here at IGF about how do we create consensus? How can we do that? The platform that we have is one that allows us as a neutral body to offer those involved and interested in any technical field a way to come forward and build consensus. And we hope that there are tools there that we can share and help you utilize and learn about. And we work in a very open and transparent manner through a programme that we support called open stand. There's some information again at the back chairs about that that shows that we along with other organizations, many of whom have a presence here at IGF, believe in these principles. Believe that is the only way to build a truly interoperable and technical world that all of us can interact with. And with that, Karen, I'll let you introduce the next speaker.

>> Karen: Thanks, Mary Lynn.

So we also have some programmes ‑‑ and don't be sort of scared by the name we called it industry connections. But we have programmes in security and I'm going to have Jim talk a little bit about those right now.

>> Jim: So in addition to the sort of formal standardization process that Mary Lynn had mentioned that IEEE oversees, provides a more formal processes for people reaching consensus and developing standards, we also have this other platform for little less formally bringing together the interested players in different fields, different technical fields, to work together and reaching consensus and developing maybe not standard yet but maybe proposals for standards can be developing just white papers that on a particular topic. Could be developing shared industry‑wide databases, things like that which are kind of standards related that people want to use across the different groups and properties and so on but aren't formal standards. And that programme and that framework we call the industry connections. So it provides this efficient and economic environment for building Kong census of the it can incubate new standards and related services and can kind of fast track to formal standards if that becomes necessary. Now one example area that I myself have been very much involved with is this Internet security group. And it focuses, it brought together the players from the antivirus environment who had never worked together in the past but they just needed a neutral environment in which to work together to develop some shared industry‑wide resources that would allow them as a group to be more effective in combating the worldwide malware threat, the bad guys, the malware creators, are very happy to work together, share all of their techniques in order to attack whatever they wish. And the problem is that the companies that are trying to trying to combat that in many ways are restricted by laws, of course, of anti‑competitive laws and so on, from even working together and collaborating. So you have to provide a proper environment, a safe environment for them to work together to collaborate and to develop shared resources that they can all rely on in order to then unite and combat those kind of threats. So that gives an example. So they work together to develop this malware metadata to exchange information about the malware that they're discovering because they started finding that, well, this is an industry‑wide resource that all of them could benefit from. So why not be able to have a common way of sharing it?

Developed what has been called the software tagging system. Taggants comes actually from the chemical explosives industry. You put little chemicals in explosives so that after they blow up you can still identify where they came from and what they were. In this case we make a software taggant that gets attached to encrypted software that is very common way that the malware is distributed. They compact it. They obfuscate it so it's hard to discover what the malware is doing. And they do this in an automated fashion so that they keep make different versions of the same malware but with slightly different variations.

We have this taggant system that gets attached to it and you always know who created the malware regardless of how all these little variants. So that was a very useful technique that the whole industry now is using and spreading out throughout it and they're able to do it through this environment.

We have a clean metadata exchange for which is actually a shared database now of clean data.

I think it was last year that the amount of malware in the world and the rate of creation of malware surpassed the rate of creating good software.

So it's at that inflection point. So it actually makes more sense to maintain databases of information about what is good in the world. So, again, by having an environment where we could create this shared neutral platform to share this kind of information, that's what this programme allowed them to do.

And then we put that all together into this anti‑malware support services. Both that, the taggant system and the clean file metadata exchange.

So that gives a flavor of the kind of platform by having a neutral environment, people otherwise and who are actually competitors can come together and work together on results that are benefiting everybody. Because it's not just benefiting them but of course if you're solving some of the malware problems in the world, you're benefiting everybody.

>> MODERATOR: So, thanks, Jim. As I mentioned at the beginning of the session, we have a lot of work in emerging technology areas. So for the next two slides we'll have Roberto talk to us about that.

>> Roberto: So I am not a native speaker you will notice. That is the strength of the IEEE. I have a different culture from other people. And I would say this is useful in order to figure out what comes next. You see, IEEE is a huge organisation with a lot of good scientists, researchers, but also people that do innovation into the industry. And we came up from different parts of the world. So it's ideally positioned for looking at what is coming next. And, in fact, there is a section, a committee, if you want, that is focusing exactly on what are the next points? What are the next technological evolution that we have to look for?

And IEEE has also the goal to facilitate the exchange and the cross‑pollination, they call it, we call it ‑‑

Because there are ideas, there are different people in the organisation. There are volunteers, there are scientists, people that can bring new ideas.

Here there is a list of a few new things that are going on, internal things, cyber security that is quite important, big data ‑‑ how data can be used in a fair way. How to improve the energy consumption, smart grid. And software defined metrics that maybe is less known but is how to programme a communication network in a new way. How to use software for doing this.

And this is the framework. And for instance there is the spectrum magazine of IEEE that is also providing new inputs, some ideas on how to improve.

So the next slide is related to how the future direction are determined. What we are trying to do there is to anticipate and determine the direction of new and emerging technologies with the spirit of IEEE, so to benefit the humanity, not just the industry or, you know, the pleasure of a scientist to go on in a specific topic.

What we do within the future direction is to look for new ideas, new technologies and to nurture them and to put them together because they are not isolated.

You know, a lot of innovation is coming now from the combination of two, three different technologies. The Internet of Things is exactly this kind of thing.

So we look at the cross points where many technologies, let's say more than one or two, can meet and to bring a lot of innovation there. So the innovation is the result of changes in technologies, but also changes in the economic situation or countries, areas or industries. The social impact, I think IEEE is strongly involved in looking at the social impact of technologies. That is quite interesting.

And also how the culture, having said that many, you saw, we are many, many volunteers from all the places in the world. So that is important also to understand how technology and culture can relate to each other.

And so we need also and we try to put together a number of people that know how to move on on the innovation.

So, for 2015, the IEEE future direction committee is supporting a number of different initiatives, from big data, so you can imagine how to use data in order to instruct information. For instance, we have a plan to ‑‑ before 3 million and 900 document were mentioned, there is a lot of scientific information there. So we are also thinking of making use of that information.

Cyber security, as we were discussing before, Internet of Things I think I can talk for hours. But I am not going to do that.

Another example of a good initiative. They didn't want to put together just people talking about smart cities. They are going in the field. They are selecting ‑‑ they're asking to the city "do you want to become a smart city? We can support you with education plan, with materials, with the support of a large community. So there are certain cities that have been candidates. And they are supported by the IEEE.

Green ICT is another important topic, how to do processing with less resources.

Rebooting computing is trying to refine, if you want, how computers are built, using different technologies and different approaches.

And then software defined network is the way in which the new network could be totally controlled by software. And so that is another point of interest.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you, Roberto. We will hear more about IoT in a few seconds here. But you know when you see those initiatives, and that's sort of an internal terminology, but when you think about Internet, Internet Governance, privacy security, it touches all of that. So the work that we're dog there is also very tangential to those issues and how they're interrelated. So just keep that in mind as we're kind of going through this because that's where these issues are also being addressed, as well.

So with that, a little bit of a segue here to our next little discussion about our Internet initiatives. So, Jim?

>> Jim: Yeah. So you've seen from what we've presented that IEEE has a very broad, global and deep technical community, 430,000 people worldwide, involved in all kinds of fields either that directly have been involved and contributed to the development of the underlying architecture and technologies of the Internet or are very heavily involved in applications of the Internet, whether you're talking about in smart cities, whether you're talking about the Internet of Things, whether you're talking about aerospace and how Internet impacts that. Automotive. Virtually every aspect of life now and every place where electrical technologies are involved have some impact on the Internet.

So the question that crossed our mind in terms of IEEE's goal of advancing technology for humanity is: How could we maybe leverage this great resource that we have available from this membership to actually make a positive impact in this area? And that was the real motivations for creating this Internet initiative of IEEE. It's to basically connect this technical community with the policymakers and make it a two‑way street because it has to work both ways. It's both to provide those, the technical expertise to the policymakers so that as regulations are being made, as policies are being developed, they're well informed by the best technical knowledge that's available throughout the world.

And secondly it has to go the other way around. That can only happen if the technical people actually appreciate, understand what are the policy issues? What will it take to get this, to explain the technology to the people who have to think about it and understand the social implications and so on?

Back to the main theme. If what we're trying to do is, you know, develop technology for the benefit of humanity, well you can't benefit humanity unless you can really understand what the social implications of what you're creating are going to be. So it has to go both ways. And that's what the initiative is about, is connecting both those communities.

So, I think I said most of this. So let me just talk about, then, kind of the concrete things that we tried to do. So we have the Internet initiative website that is a growing resource that will contain materials that are related to this whole field addressing technical issues, making those available, alerting people to upcoming events and areas that they can get involved in.

What we've done is kicked off a series of what we're calling experts in technology and Policy Forums in Internet Governance, cyber security and privacy. And we try to do those in different regions of the world. So we started with one in the U.S. in the Silicon Valley area. We've had one in Israel. In the coming year, we plan to have one in India. We'll have one in China. And we're looking at other areas where we will have subsequent ones, as well.

So, the idea there is that as you may have heard from lots of the discussions around IGF is policies and the decisions end up being made locally. So you have to understand the local issues. You can't just have one kind of global discussion come with a global final solution on what you want to do. So the concept here is we will have kind of acting locally, thinking locally, working with the local people, bringing forward the more localised issues; but then provide an environment, which is that third box that we talk about there, this online community where those discussions and the results that they're coming out with can also be brought back together at a global scale so that you can kind of influence each other and come to best solutions that can impact the different regions of the world based on understanding how others are doing things.

So, we use all three. We use that concept of having some of these face‑to‑face things but also you have to recognize that you have to provide the tools for doing things offline as well as online.

>> MODERATOR:I know we're getting a little bit short on time so I was just going to switch quickly here so that we can get a little bit of discussion going around our Internet of Things effort, as well.

Internet and Internet of Things. Perfect together, right? So hold on while we switch a presentation here. I promise it's coming. Maybe.

We're counting down to new year's or something. Here we go. With this, we will hand it to Roberto. This is very near and dear to his heart.

>> Roberto: So coming up to the initiative. You see the Internet of Things, it's difficult to be defined. A lot of people are saying ‑‑ are proposing some definition but they usually put a bias on on what the Internet of Things is. Involving communications. Objects communicating. Who are producing objects would say no. So within the Internet of Things initiative, we have been trying to be a little bit less biased. And so to see what are actually the possible definitions of Internet of Things. And we came out with I think it's a good document. A discussion document you can comment on. And we will see.

What we tried to do, we want to do two things. We have a lot of experience, a lot of skills, a lot of people that are producing content related to Internet of Things. But we have also the idea that we want to have a technical community that is involved, is involved also the people, the volunteers. Let's say people that are not necessarily technicians or scientists in the Internet of Things. Because the Internet of Things are also being promoted by ‑‑ if you are familiar with ‑‑ so what we want to try to do is to be important for the scientists, the researcher, the industrial practitioner and the people that do just have an interest on the Internet of Things.

What is Internet of Things? The if you look around, you will find 50 billions of objects. You will say Internet of Things will have plenty of application scenarios. And a lot of things going on from the business perspective. It's all true. But you have to work together in order to determine if the 50 billion sensors would be deployed, how? What are the business models behind? So we need to put all these things together in order to understand what is going on.

For sure there is ‑‑ we are lacking because there is a driving from the market. There are a lot of ‑‑ there are large communities that are based on these local processing devices like Arduino, Raspberry Pi and things like this. So it's quite interesting to see this environment.

And on top of this, you can create prototypes and to go to the industry.

What are we trying to do is to look for the challenges of Internet of Things. We are doing a lot of things in determining what are the major challenges of Internet of Things?

If you talk, for instance, to a security expert and you say "what is the major challenge in the Internet of Things"? He will say for sure security.

If you talk to me, I come from communication, I will say "oh, communication protocols."

And then as technicians, we were realising that probably even if we solved all the technical issues that are around Internet of Things, at least here two things are still missing. But I think I learn from this conference that three things are missing.

One is the business. Nobody's going to deploy any IoT solution if there is not some benefit, economical or society benefits.

Then there is also a limit of impact on the society. You know, when you talk about monitoring phenomenas, people are thinking to the big brother. So there is sort of rejection about the Internet of Things. So there are a lot of social‑related issues that you have to solve if you want to have successful deployment.

And then there is regulation. Regulation on Internet of Things will play a major role. It can guarantee to people that you are not monitoring. It can guarantee to people that data are collected in a very good way.

So what we do in the IoT initiative, we have a web portal that is our window. We can watch with you and you can watch what we are trying to do. So we've ‑‑ we are striving for putting a lot of content there. A lot of interesting content that could be an essential contribution to the discussion related to Internet of Things.

So we have educational videos. We have papers from the explorer. We have webinars. We have some general articles that we can provide. And we are also pointing you conferences and events that are relevant for the Internet of Things. And we are also pointing to standards.

For instance, we are creating ‑‑ we are trying to put forward a newsletter, a newsletter that is collecting articles from experts from the fields bimonthly.

We have been into the institute special report about the Internet of Things.

We are strongly supporting the Internet of Things journal. It's now in the fourth issue, maybe the fifth issue, with a number of good papers, very technical but very interesting.

And then we are also trying to use the explore digital library in order to understand what are some good papers that can put a light on the Internet of Things.

Okay. IoT brings a lot of people together. We started an event, the Work Forum on Internet of Things, in Korea in 2014. It was a nice event. It was not so big. It was not big like this. But there were a lot of people that could discuss. The atmosphere was very, very nice.

And now in 2015, we will have the event in Milan. And for instance we have Vint Cerf from Google giving the keynote. And we try to grow to have more people involved in the discussion, but still we want to preserve the idea that discussion is important. You don't have to be Vint Cerf to be there. You have to come because you are interested and you can learn and you can teach to people. So the atmosphere will be a lot of industrial panel, a lot of sections very academic, very scientific. And the cross‑fertilization of people from the industry and the academy. And we also from the regulation.

So we also try to be more involved with the industry. And through all we have been organising a lot of workshops related to standardization. But also we are trying to involve IoT startup because they can be those that are going to modify how Internet of Things will come out.

So there are plenty of events. The last one was in Israel that is a good area for IoT support, for setups in general. And so it was very, very successful.

And then what do we looking for? We want to involve the people. And so we are asking to people to contribute with scenarios and use cases. How do you see IoT should be used? Do you have in mind the service? Do you have a necessity, a requirement on Internet of Things? What are you thinking of using Internet of Things? It shouldn't be a scientific paper. It could be a paper or two pages in which you describe the idea. And why that is important.

So if you want to contribute, if you want to be involved, you have to just to sign in the technical community of the Internet of Things that is for free. And then you can start contributing, looking at the discussion going on and providing your input and looking at the contribution.

And then there is another thing. The IoT definition document. We have been striving to arrive to the point in which we can provide an interesting IoT definition. As I was saying before, many IoT definitions are somehow biased by the proponent. Here we have been trying to be as much as possible neutral in the IoT definition. But there is more. There are many comments on the document. And we are planning to put the document in the open domain for sure and to receive directly your comments of the so it would be a Google document that you could edit if you feel that there is something that is missing in this document, you can add a new paragraph. If you don't like the IoT definition, you can propose something else. Then there will be a bit of discussion in the community.

So, we have 9,000 people involved into the community and we're pushing your people there to arrive by the end of this year to 10,000. In the several initiatives. And please if you want, you can contribute to that.

Here are in the picture there are a number of addresses. You can start from the ‑‑ but also from the IoT IEEE.org and then surf there and see how you can contribute to our technical community. And for sure you are welcome.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you very much. I know we threw a lot of information at you. We're trying to sort of put in context what we have as joining the IGF community and looking at how we can utilize our platforms and our communities to address some of these problems. As we heard throughout the week, it's really a ‑‑ we're all in this together and we all need to come together to progress. Technology is advancing at such a rapid rate. Countries are creating policies and laws. And sometimes we feel there's this gap between us. And how do we help close that gap? So we're trying to bring our communities of experts to help do that and help reduce that gap a little bit.

So at this point I want to know if anyone has any questions for any of us about anything that we've presented today or something maybe you heard about that we didn't present that you want to know a little bit more about. Please.

>> Hi, my name is Carlos from Nicaragua. And I'm part of the youth at IGF programme. And I would like to appreciate the fact that you mentioned about the tools for education that we can search for, which is great. And my question is real quick. This group, this youth at IGF has a lot of initiatives, but pretty much is composed of different groups of interest which includes nontechnical matters, right? So my question is speaking strictly into the Internet initiative, how can we participate in that? Technical and nontechnical. And support, engage, contribute to the already ongoing effort that you have. Thank you very much.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you. I'll start and ask other people to join. We are in the early stages of building online communities around that, as well. As Jim mentioned, we have several events, if you will, and outreaches that we're doing in various parts of the world. But it's a challenge. Like here we definitely need, the community is open where you can join the community. We're looking to create a more robust dialogue around those types of issues to get engaged in it. It's not necessarily just for engineers or technologists. There's a whole other side or many sides to the issues. So stakeholders and people of interest who have ideas and just want to come together and talk about them and see how we can progress those dialogues into something tangible is what that initiative street really about. So right now we have an online community and there's regional programmes that we're having, as well, as a starting point. But I'll leave it to Jim to add a little bit more there.

>> Jim: Maybe you can flip to the last slide of that deck if you can very quickly that shows at least the Web address for getting to the website and so on? To the very last slide. Just go to end.

The other thing we have some pamphlets in the box. There are some pamphlets about the Internet initiative there. So it also has the Web address. So that's for the website. And from there you'll be able to see how to join the community and so on. So we have the main part of the community to join would be the collaboratec. It's a broader type of IEEE mechanism where you can ‑‑ it's like a professional networking, right? So you can kind of build up your professional profile. It will get seen by lots of people who are joining this kind of professional community.

But there's a very specific and there's subcommunities within that, right? And one is on Internet technology policy. So if you search for ‑‑ join collaboratec. Join. It takes you through a few steps to get that. Apologize just the mechanisms to get up and working. But you can get into that community. The Internet policy community. What we'll be doing there is out of those ETAP events, the experts in technology and policy events that we do, those events try to identify what are some of the key issues that we want to be addressing and then we start the conversations within those communities. And anybody can be involved and comment on it. And then we can, out of that conversation also start developing maybe white papers and ultimately we hope if we can get some consensus some position papers on some of those issues if that makes sense. So that will be the primary way I think to get involved from different regions.

And as time goes on, we hope that we will have also an ETAP event closer to your area of the world, in Central America, as well.

>> MODERATOR: But I would also like to mention, and thank you for bringing it to the forefront is when we look at that initiative and how we're moving it forward, I think the concept of bringing the youth in, if you will, the younger generation into it is very important because you're our future leaders. I think that the Internet, what we know and love today will probably be very, very different five, ten years from now and beyond. We might even be calling it the Internet. We might have another label on it. And I think involving young people going out into the industry and marketplace and working on these challenges is definitely something to bring into the fold and bring back with us. Thank you for providing that to us.

>> And just one additional thought also. I'm sorry. Is IEEE has a strong presence. You've heard a lot about our technical engagement. But one of our major contributors to everything we do are users. And the reality is that everybody around this table is a user of the Internet. So when you talk about the role you play, you have a very strong role to play. And I have seen activities in the IEEE in the past who have involved lawyers, professors, teachers, firefighters. That's the first person you think of from what we presented today, right? Firefighters. But they're there.

So I actually would encourage you to remember that your role as a user and as a contributor in that way is just as valuable as someone who develops the technology.

>> Yeah, I want to add on this. There are as you see in the slide there are some contact mechanisms. I would suggest you ‑‑ because if you are asking probably you have in mind something. When you contact the people, to say what is your proposition. That would help a lot. If you just say "I want to be involved" that's nice. But then you can be forced into something that you don't like.

But if you say "Internet regulation. I have this problem. I think this is a big issue that I want to contribute to." You are doing two things. You are volunteering in doing things, but you are also showing, pointing to something that for you is a big issue. And so the people that will receive, say, I was not thinking to this, why don't we try to tackle these other issues?

And so your contribution could be more precise. And directly to the point that you want to make.

>> MODERATOR: Exactly. Please.

>> I'm seeing the IEEE site and I saw a programme that's called "women in tech." It's from unicamp university. I think it is São Paulo. And I would like to ask how can I implement this kind of programme in my university?

>> I can take that. We actually have an entire group that is dedicated to our educational programmes. And what we can do is put you in contact with them. They would know who at the university had set that up and we could put you in contact with those people to find out what they did and what they didn't do. IEEE has very strong student chapters, university chapters that really can do what they wish to do that is appropriate for their student bodies, their interests, their needs. So the direction you go with any one of them can be as varied and unique as the IEEE itself. So that's what we can do for you.

>> MODERATOR: So make sure we talk to you before you leave so make sure we get your contact information and we'll get you in contact.

>> I already have her card.

>> I'm a marked woman.


>> MODERATOR: So we appreciate that. Any questions? I know we're hitting right into that magical time where lunchtime.

So I do want to thank everyone for joining us today. Again we want to provide this overview so you can see how we can get connected with the IEEE but also any ideas that you have about what IEEE is doing and how we can connect IEEE to other communities and to other venues so that we can be part of the larger ecosystem as we address these challenges that are in front of us. And opportunities. I think there's a lot of great opportunity, as well. When we look at technology and what it can really do for us to advance technology for humanity, really meet challenges that we are facing today and what can come in the next 10 years that we can't even imagine today. It's kind of exciting. I know there's always going to be some issues around them. But when we look at the sustainability of the planet, of communications, of innovation and economic growth, it's really foundational to that. So we need to work together to make sure we keep it going.

So thank you very much. Thank you for eating into your lunchtime, no pun intended. And hopefully we can grab something right after this. And we're here this afternoon if you want to talk to us, as well. So thank you very much.

[End of session.]