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High Level Leaders Meeting Session 3

FINISHED TRANSCRIPT

 

EIGHTH INTERNET GOVERNANCE FORUM

BALI

BUILDING BRIDGES – ENHANCING MULTI-STAKEHOLDER COOPERATION FOR GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

21 OCTOBER 2013

12:00

HIGH LEVEL LEADERS MEETING ON GLOBAL MULTISTAKEHOLDER COLLABORATION FOR ACHIEVING A SAFE, SECURE, AND TOLERANT CYBERSPACE: ENABLING GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CYBER ETHICS

SESSION 3: OPEN DISCUSSION

 

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The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during the Eigth Meeting of the IGF, in Bali, Indonesia. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the session, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.


 

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   >> Ladies and gentlemen, Excellencies, distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen, we would like to start the third session. If you could come back to your seat, please.

   We are about to start the third session, and as was previously mentioned, the third session will be the open discussion and will be chaired by my colleague, the Chair, Professor Ramli. Mr. Ramli is the Senior Advisor for Technology for Minister for Communication and Information Technology of the Republic of Indonesia, and he will chair the third session.

   The third session will last until around 12:45 because after that, we will take about ten minutes to read a brief summary of the meetings before we will break at 13:00 for lunch.

   Ladies and gentlemen, I would like to pass the chair to Mr. Ramli. Mr. Ramli, please.

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thanks, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen, all of us have listened to the inspiring speeches, remarks, and presentations, and also contributions from all the panelists. Now I would like to invite floors to give your contribution as response to previous panelists or speakers. We have around half an hour in this session, so for the first round, I would like to give the floor for six contributors. As a reminder, with limited time, please deliver your contribution for maximum or around five minutes. For that, please raise your hand, and I will appoint you. Then please inform your name and organisations. Please raise your hands, please. I have two gentlemen, gentlemen over there, one woman and gentleman as well. So we have four ready. So I will start with the gentleman on the front, front first, I think. After that, Dr. Edmon Makarim after that. So first, please, gentlemen, your turn. Yes, yes, please.

   >> JOSEPH ALHADEFF: Thank you. Joseph Alhadeff on behalf of ICC BASIS, and ICC BASIS is an organisation that helps coordinate business input and participation into the IGF. Thank you for the opportunity to participate.

   Ministers, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen, I wanted to reflect on a couple of the themes that were raised during the comments. One of the themes was the merging of online and offline. But we have to recall that this merging isn't something that happens overnight. It's been an evolution over time. And because it's an evolution over time, we actually already have significant experience on how to apply some of the norms that we've developed offline into online worlds. And we cannot forget that existing experience as we go forward, and it should inform our thoughts and processes going forward.

   There was also raised the context of the importance of the level of development when you consider how to think about these norms. And the level of development is important because it goes to the idea of context, and context is, in fact, very important when you have to consider the Internet situations because it, in many ways, is not a one-size-fits-all environment. And context will help us determine what the needed roles are and what the leadership opportunities are related to those roles.

   In 2002, the OECD developed a set of guidelines for security, and the subcontext of those guidelines was developing a culture of security, and one of the inherent principles of those guidelines was each according to his role, indicating that participants across the spectrum of the Internet had roles to play related to security of the Internet. And those are concepts that will serve us well as we move forward in this discussion.

   Inclusion and trust were two other themes that were raised as important, and in fact, they are common themes across all stakeholders because they deal with both collective participation as well as individual participation. They deal with the participation of people on a personal level as well as people and organisations on a commercial level. Because we have to remember that while the Internet has been a growth engine for economies as a whole, they have also been and can be a possible financial opportunity for organisations, for small and medium-sized enterprises, and for individuals as well.

   There was great discussion about the concept of global norms, and we all agreed that accepted practices and policies, accepted consensus-based global standards help create the frameworks that lend order to both behavior and action and help guide local policy towards global interoperability. But we have to take care to make sure that these norms don't devolve into a concept of micromanagement of the inherent flexibility of the Internet, of the needed global information flows that power the Internet, and that become the enablement of innovation and the dynamism of the Internet that has been its benefit to so many.

   These conversations at the level of a principle-based approach to these issues play an important role, especially when in multistakeholder fora like the IGF that promote the ability of individuals and organisations to seize the opportunities and enjoy the benefits that the digital economy and Internet Society can afford. This underlines the continued importance of maintaining a vibrant and productive IGF, and much like the OECD Security Guidelines remind us, each of us has a role to play to that end, which we should actively exercise, not just this week, but over the years to come.

   Thank you very much. (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Okay. Thank you very much, Mr. Joseph Alhadeff.

   I would invite Dr. Makarim, please.

   >> EDMON MAKARIM: Thank you very much for the opportunity. I apologize if I don't have many diplomatic words. I cannot find in this world there is a society without ethics. So in qualitative approach, I believe ethics, it should be a must, to talk, to discuss, in order to have good or moral amenity in our future civilizations.

   I would like to raise the fact that until now we have not succeeded to make cyerspace become a better place in safety, security, and also terror lines.

   As a lecturer, I am a legal scholar teaching cyber law and computer law since 1990s, and I have found that our people, day by day, time by time, like to reduce their failures. So in this context, I believe at least talking or discussing about cyber ethics, it's more easier rather than talking about the crime.

   If in this world we can formulate the crime, why can we not formulate about the ethics? By talking or discussing about ethics, at least we have a guidance in the heart to what extent our feelings, our sense saying this tends to be wrong or this tends to be good for society.

   Then at least I can propose some simple point of ethics that I have already known from many literators about Internet Society. Privacy, property, accessibility, availability, neutrality, accountability, due process, and also responsibility. I am worried that until now I found that connectivity without responsibility. I am worried about our future generation maybe lost their values if they are not aware of these values since the beginning. At least to multi-stakeholders, they appreciate, they can formulate about the code of practices.

   Indonesia has pluralism in its society, and we learn a lot that local content sometimes can make conflict never end. And society sometimes cannot solve that. So talking about the society is not the same with the talking about law enforcement. So feeling about the cyber ethics tends to be abused, barrier of freedom to speech. I think that is worried too much.

   I think ethics make us use the Internet, develop Internet more civilized and more productive in the future.

   Thank you very much.

   (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you, Doctor. He is Associate Professor at the faculty of Lowell at University Indonesia.

   Now, the lady on the left, please.

   >> SUBI CHATURVEDI: Good afternoon, Bali and the entire Internet Governance community. My name is Subi Chatervedi, an Assistant Professor from India, School of Journalism and Communication for Women, which is part of the University, and I run a foundation called Media for Change.

   I am truly delighted and happy to be here. As the ancient Chinese, we live it interesting times, and these these truly are interesting times. I have been in Bali only three days, and as the IGF process stays on, moving from country to country, region to region each year, it is a learning experience for me.

   As someone who teaches students, young girls, we are asked difficult questions. As a student of culture and media, what I learned over the course of these two days were the three binding principles that Bali and its people espouse: Your responsibility and your duty to your community, to the nature and environment, and to God. I don't know how many of us are believers here, but I have been now engaged with this process for over a year, and as a young skeptic, I have now turned a believer. I am yet to see a process which is bottoms-up, multistakeholder, and truly inclusive. But I do believe that we are living in interesting times, indeed, and the challenges are many.

   We just ran a session in India, and that's where I come from, a country of 2.4 billion people, 840 million mobile users, and 160 million people using the Internet. The next billion people are going to come from regions such as these, developing countries and emerging economies.

   We talked about many seeds. Some of the seeds I do want to put forward for deliberation are content and local content and the availability of content, the preservation and protection of critical infrastructure, and the ideas and journey that slaves have taken from being slaves to citizens.

   When Lynn talked about less government and more governance and the roles that the Tunis agenda espouses for each of our stakeholders, the rightful roles, those are the things I want to plead and urge at this historical moment for the IGF to deliberate upon as a process to reinvent, reaffirm its commitments to inclusivity and multistakeholderism.

   As the world order stands today, each stakeholder is not equally privileged. We have to do more as governments and business to bring together knew voices, voices of change, voices that could represent a diversity, multiplicity, and plurality of opinions and voices. I want to see more young people in the room. I want to see more women. And I want to see more marginalized communities, voices which are often used by the government to bring in regulation.

   I also want to reaffirm what my dear friend, Jovan, said. For seeking to preserve something that we hold dear, let us not kill the object of our mutual affections. We do need to uphold current net values of openness, permissionless innovation. Surveillance might be a necessary evil as governments across the world would have us believe, but I do believe that we need more accountability and transparency, data storage for whom, by whom, and for how long.

   And on the question and the events for the next meeting, when meetings are held such as this, as a voice, a woman academic from a developing country, I do want to urge that the process is consultative and that the places to collect and bring together are mindful of the thought that they might take 30 hours to travel for people to get there. So we do want to believe that there can be a process, there can be a system, and yes, there are problems, but these are good problems to have, and we would all like to come together to solve them.

   I just want to end my conversation as this is what I see it as, with a small story. I was walking for the registration yesterday, and I met a couple of taxi drivers, and they asked me if I wanted a taxi. I said no. They asked me if I wanted one for tomorrow. I said no. They asked me if I would need one, if I might need one for day after. I said no. They said if you change your mind, you know where to find us.

   It is the resilience and the persistence of the Balinese people that I most appreciate today. I think the Internet is something that we hold dear, and if we hold it dear and if we think this is something that we have to cherish, Internet and freedom, we have to keep knocking for as long as it takes and as hard as it takes.

   Thank you so much. Thank you for listening, and thank you for giving me this opportunity.

   (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you, Ms. Chaturvedi.

   Please, introduce yourself.

   >> SENTYANTO SANTOSA: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. My name is Sentyanto Santosa, Chairman of Indonesia ICT Society, so my members are operators, including also the ISP.

   Mr. Chairman, most of the speakers and previous panelists also, talking about the information age downstream of the Internet. Almost nobody is talking about the upstream of the Internet.

   If you look at the theme of this discussion, especially the destination is enabling growth and sustainable development. We have to think also the sustainable development, let's say, of the players, not only among the users, but also in the business sector.

   If growth and sustainable development can be achieved only if the users get the economic value. This economic value, of course, can be achieved if the good quality of the network is proper and available. And also, this is very important, so with all my respect to my friend from the over the top services company, that again, not is this a fact, there is a battle, battle between operators.

   So should also try to find the model of collaboration between the OTTs and the network operators. Because if they can provide the network, I think we are the users also, will suffer so much.

   So the fact of battle of telecom operator on the surface company cannot be ignored. We should find the solution. If we can't find the business model, the proven business model, maybe we can exchange a few. Otherwise, it will be danger, let's say, for another period of time.

   This, Mr. Chairman, that we have two choices, maybe, again, cooperation, and also the operator, we have to challenge them also to create the new let's say business or value property and business model.

   And with this, I think, Mr. Chairman, I know that other members have good experience, and some is sometimes different, but their side as consumers, they are happy. Again, maybe people are using OTT, and they already move also from the short message to the social media. They also move the voice, from voice phone to the VoIP, and the cloud also will move. So without our interference, without our suggestion, it will endanger the Internet surfaces.

   Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

   (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you, Mr. Setyanto. I have one gentleman at the back of Ms. Chaturvedi. No? Any more questions?

   Two more gentlemen, please, and then you. Yeah.

   >> HIROTO ASAOKA: Thank you. Thank you, Chair. My name is Hiroto Asaoka. I work for CCT register for .jp and also Director for Asia Pacific Top-Level Domain association, APTLD. APTLD is the association for operators in the Asia Pacific region with 47 members. Demands, such as privacy or responsibility, exist in a very vague form now. Actually, no clear definition, such as quantitative definition, exists for them.

   Of course, sometimes those who felt being victims claim that case in concrete form using the real case they experienced. However, even in such a case, the Pacific definition is different from person to person, from organisation to organisation, and from country to country. As a result, for example, what level of privacy is needed and appropriate is defined by services that should accomplish the balance of usability and privacy.

   Users will decide whether such services fit them concerning the usability and privacy. They may choose services from other countries of their residence, which is very often the case. I know this mechanism is very rough stuff and doesn't scale. I understand things happen that cannot be undone. But doing nothing from fear bears nothing to human. All the players, including users, must take some level of responsibility as well to receive benefit.

   All stakeholders must cooperate in a flexible manner as the needs and services, such evolution are expected to be changed with high speed. We, all stakeholders, must cooperate with full commitment and efficiency. And of course, the discussion should not excessively insist on national border or the border of the roles of stakeholders. Such predefined framework will ruin our creativity.

   From CCT operators aspect, we try to make the Internet as safe, secure, and tolerant as possible from the technical perspective, of course. Here I say infrastructure operators, I use this word not only for engineering-level operation, but those of administration level, such as IP address allocation and domain name registration, sometimes with the help of human hands.

   Security, for example, does not only belong to the infrastructure operation layer but to the usage layer, but also to the usage layer, such as phishing and legal contents. The security of this layer grows to more important stuff. To raise the security of this layer, we, domain name registries, also try to take down such content through cooperation with ISPs, security organisations, and even general users to maintain the Internet users' safety.

   So what I want to say is the cooperation among stakeholders with flexibility is needed.

   Thank you.

   (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you very much. And last gentleman on my right-hand side, please.

   >> Thank you, Mr. Chairman. My name is I Gede. I am one of the commissioners in the Indonesian telecommunication regulatory community.

   I would like to make three points regarding the presentations this morning. But first of all, I would like to appreciate for the organisers that are bringing very good efforts in trying to linkage between the ethics and the sustainable development, and we would like to support this effort.

   The first point is about many presenters have said the importance of the Internet, Internet is the fundamental needs, or we call it sometimes basic human needs and so on. It means that all of us wanted the Internet -- as many people as possible are connected to the Internet. So one of the challenges will be the digital divide, as stated by our colleague from PTTL com in the morning. So in that regard, I would like to propose that when we talk about secure, we can expand the meaning of the security as securing the infrastructure and sustaining growth of the infrastructure itself to make sure that in the future many people will be able to use the Internet.

   Second point is about the ethics. Actually, one of the impacts that we are not using the Internet with ethics is that it may impact the user experience, and if some communities have bad experience on using Internet, then in their next generations they may avoid using that Internet, and that is not a good thing that is not -- we do not expect things to happen. That's why that is also one of the needs for us to link between the ethics and Internet.

   Another part is about ethics on doing business on the Internet. This is somehow related to the points that were stated by Setyanto just now, when we are doing business on the Internet and broadband, we need also to use ethics in doing business in the country, ethics in paying the tax, ethics in doing business that becomes mutual benefit to all the stakeholders and so on.

   Number three, my last point, is that I would like to propose that sustainability and growth of the infrastructure to be one of the metrics to measure the impact of the multistakeholderisms. It means that we have to make sure that there is mutual benefit among all the stakeholders on these issues.

   Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

   (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you. Please give applause to all the contributors because I think all the six ladies and gentlemen, they just give us contributions to these discussions, but I want to close this session, actually, by inviting panelists, all panelists who want to respond to the contributions that were delivered by the participants. Any or all panelists that would like to comment.

   I see a lady standing up there. Do you want to give contributions?

   >> Can you hear me?

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Okay. We have the last five minutes in our session. Please.

   >> MISHI CHOUDHARY: Can everyone hear me? Am I audible?

   My name is Mishi CHOUDHARY. I run a nonprofit organisation which works on digital freedom in India. I have three points to make, perhaps questions for this great panel and various panelists.

   My first point is that this word, "multistakeholderism" or "multistakeholder participation," which is a mouthful, for how long are the governments, whether from the south or from the north or everywhere else, are going to pay lip service to it, give a nod to multistakeholderism, and get the civil society participants only to come once the decisions have been made, and the fat cats are getting sleepy, which means industry and government has gotten together and made the decision, and then the civil society enters the pictures to be given and presented with decisions which are already made.

   My second point is that Internet presents an opportunity for empowerment. This talk about enabling growth and sustainable development, no matter what the recent revelations have shown, we also recognize the fact that the big Internet companies come from a country which fuels free speech and expression and also has led to such development coming from there, which tells us that growth is possible when there is free speech and expression given to the citizens and the freedom to participate freely and use this medium for getting more than we have in the offline world.

   And the third point is there are listeners everywhere. The national listeners want to surveil their own societies in the name of national security, and the international businesses want to do it because they are de facto policemen of the world. So are these various representatives going to discuss whether the domestic listeners are going to be subject to the rule of law as their country espouses for and whether the states have a duty, a positive responsibility, to protect their own societies from the foreign listeners and foreign surveillance and spying which is going on in the world?

   Thank you.

   (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you very much.

   Please, you want to contribute as well, lady? Please.

   >> Yes. Thank you. My name is Salanyeta --

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Could you please go close tore the mic, please?

   >> S. TAMANIKAIWAIMARO: Sorry. My name is Salanieta Tamanikaiwaimaro, and I am in an awkward position because at the moment, I wear two hats, and I'll address you first with one of the hats, and then the other, if that's okay.

   First of all, I've asked for permission from my government in Fiji to stand on their behalf to make this intervention. I chair the Legal Subcommittee of the Cyber Working Group, which is endorsed by our Cabinet in Fiji, and we are in the process of producing a national cybersecurity strategy and a whole bunch of policies and that sort of thing.

   This meeting was a very strategic one for us in terms of gauging, in terms of the -- in terms of gauging where countries stand pertaining to security issues. Recent reports of standards bodies being compromised -- for example, the NIST random computer generation compromise that was reported by IEEE, not to many things like RFCs being hijacked through potential patent applications in the USPTO Office, and other things make countries nervous, particularly where it comes to national cybersecurity and that sort of thing.

   Not just saying that there is reason for panic attack mode and, you know, people jumping off their chairs and threatening the integrity of the Internet Governance Forums, but I think one of the key things that strongly came out in this particular meeting was the need for honest dialogue because the more we skirt around issues and don't really address some of the security concerns, we end up irritating and creating a lot more conflict as opposed to just quickly and swiftly addressing the issue and that sort of thing.

   Well, that's the first comment I'd like to make on behalf of Fiji.

   The second comment that I would like to make as an ordinary Internet citizen as part of civil society, and as an individual, is this: Governments and the leaders of various Internet organisations like ICANN, ISOC, IETF, the IRRs, play a critical role in navigating the safety and integrity of the Internet in the context of protection of global public interest. And as leaders, I would urge you to take the time to reflect and to take the time to actually sit back and hear other views, hear the hard views, the views that we normally don't like to listen to, and sort of factor in how we are going to be able to broker and encourage and rebuild trust which has been lost.

   And I would also like to add that this is no -- I'm not highlighting any one particular government because governments aside, as Google had mentioned, they are known to engage in surveillance, but corporate entities also engage in types of surveillance. So the real issue is in terms of legitimacy and relevance, as you engage in your discussions, is factoring in global public interest.

   Thank you. (Applause)

   >> KALAMULLAH RAMLI: Thank you very much.

   I'm sorry because our time is very limited. Now it is already 12:45, the time is given for me until 12:45, so I really am thankful to all the contributors. We have eight ladies and gentlemen who gave their contributions to the forum. And then I would like to pass again to the Chairmanship to Dr. Ashwin Sasongko. Thank you very much.

   >> ASHWIN SASONGKO: Thank you, and ladies and gentlemen, Excellencies, distinguished participants, I would like to read the Chair's summary. This is -- I hope this briefly can give information of summary of these discussions.

   High Level Leaders Meeting on Global Multistakeholder Collaboration for Achiefing a Safe, Secure and Tolerant Cyberspace: Enabling Growth and Sustainable Development through Cyber Ethics was convened in Bali on October 21, 2013, and attended by around 500 participants representing governments, private sectors, civil society organisations, communities, academia, and international organisations. The meeting was open by Minister for Comunication and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia, His Excellency, and Chairman for ICT applications, and Senior Advisor for Technology of the Ministry of commission for technology, Mr. Kalamullah Ramli.

   Acknowledged cyber ethics as norms of living in cyberspace, which are based on mutual respects and common goals. The development of Internet has given significant positive impacts in various aspects of human life. Nevertheless, negative impact or misuse of the Internet have been national, regional, and international concerns. Ethics in cyberspace is needed to complement the existing national laws as well as regional and international instruments. Developing cyberer ethics and approach to enhance our efforts in pursuing a common goal, a safer cyberspace for our nation and people.

   The Assistant Undersecretary General of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Undersecretary General for DESA, Mr. Wu Hongbo, mentioned the relevance between the team and that the conference tackle important contributions to growth and sustainable developments. Recognizing the Internet's potential role, there is a need of public policy for ethics in order to safeguard and protect the safety of all inhabitants of cyberspace.

   Multi-stakeholders cooperation in this regard would deliberate the right balance between individual freedom and collective security.

   President and CEO of Internet corporation for ICANN said that Internet has brought tremendous economic values, human values, innovations, as well as continues to bring peace. Internet is good force that needs to be safeguarded. He highlighted that public trust and Internet is very important. Public trust of cyberworld. IGF he said is a new way to cooperate open, transparent, and cooperation where everyone has a voice to maintain public trust as the main objective.

   The Indonesian National Council Chair, purpose of the governing of Internet is to maximize the advantages of ICT and minimize the misuse of ICT. Internet being the open world that makes us so diverse, and people who live in cyberspace should maintain harmony among communities which have our values and interests because its community has different values to embrace.

   The leaders in IGF, therefore, have a significant role to lead the transformation role to a safe, secure, modern cyberspace with sustainable development.

   14 panelists representing governments, UK, USA, Brazil, Japan, China, Azerbaijan, international organisations, UNESCO, private sectors, Google, telecom Indonesia, Internet communications, ISOC, APNIC, and civil society organisations, interdemocracy, DiploFoundation, invited to give comments or inputs concerning the High Level Leaders Meeting.

   First, Internet has brought economic and social values to develop and bring welfare to communities and the world; empower people and participations; development of mobile phones also support the increase of the quality use of the Internet as a business for social and economic activities. However, there are risks that all of us, as global community, should anticipate and prevent.

   Governing cyberspace is a multistakeholder responsibility. It is pivotal to bring more players into governance of Internet, including civil societies and technical communities. This multistakeholder approach to Internet Governance is needed to protect the economic development and social benefit of the Internet for the people. Therefore, all stakeholders should have closer and strengthened cooperations in the form of capacity building, development, and sharing best practices and discuss various related issues to establish a safe and security cyberspace. Collaboration among stakeholders is also required to find the right balance between a secure cyberspace and providing place for freedom of expression.

   It is fundamentally important to ensure that freedoms in cyberspace are protected. Freedom of expression, free flow of information, privacy are some of them. It is also important to bring democratic values to cyberspace. Openness, trust are key elements. Hanse, these fundamental values are important in discussing cyber ethics.

   Sol panelists shared views and experiences in regulating cyberspace and the positive impacts on implementing or using Internet in various aspects of life. Building confidence in international cooperation and collaboration on cyberspace and bridging the global digital divide are ways forward to be taken into account by all stakeholders. Some panelists raised issues on surveillance, the importance to develop cybersecurity strategy and the role of censorship are also discussed. Furthering existing laws. In this regard, governments role remains important in supporting the development of commerce and protection of human rights. Government, therefore, has to take the lead to lead the cyber policy to making use to secure the cyberspace.

   Some people feel High Level Leaders Meeting as important landmark. Many panelists also emphasized the importance of IGF as a forum for all stakeholders to discuss policies, technical, and other relevant issues and to join in decision-making policies.

   In the session, some people from community -- highlight importance of cyber ethics. First bottomen had up and inclusive multistakeholder approach still needs to be fully implemented. In this regard, participation of women, youth, marginalized communities have to be increased in future discussion on cyberspace.

   Offline and online have evolved from time to time. In this respect, we need to understand its context. Inclusion and trust are important things to consider in discussing these contexts because they are related with people's participation and empowerment. In addition, all players, including introducers, have to take responsibility in securing the Internet. Some participants feel that content and local content should be discussed at IGF. Government and business should force plurality. We need more responsibility and transparency. Other feel sustainability of the business sector is also important. Private sector should be involved in the governance of the Internet. Therefore, we should also discuss and find business models to support economic interests of business sectors.

   The Chairman considered the meeting as effective, productive, and fruitful discussion for all of us.

   Ladies and gentlemen, finally -- well, this is the summary of the meeting. And I would like, of course, to go to the closing session because, finally, we are at the end of our meeting. Let me express my sincere appreciations to the Minister of ICT Indonesia, our partner from UNDESA, ICANN, and all the speakers, all the panelists, and all participants for your contributions during the meeting.

   Now we will have our lunch break. All participants are invited to have lunch in the lobby, just in front of our meeting room. For you who would like to do Islamic praying, the praying room is located at the mezzanine floor.

   Tomorrow we will start our IGF agenda, and I expect all of you to join and contribute during the IGF meetings.

   Thank you, and we would like to close the session and wish all of you productive deliberations during lunch and sessions. Thank you very much.

   (Applause)

   (End of session)

  

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This text is being provided in a rough draft format.  Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings.

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