Welcome to the United Nations | Department of Economic and Social Affairs

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in João Pessoa, Brazil, from 10 to 13 November 2015. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 

***

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Good morning, everyone. If you can hear. Well, first of all, we convened this meeting. There are several other meetings going on, so if we have all the people that we need, but I'm very pleased to have some key people here who (Garbled) effective discussion: I see the East African -- sorry, the UNECA, I see the down south, I see my friend Tracy from Trinidad and Tobago walking in majestically, and please come right up to the high table here. I see Cecilia representing 15 countries, and I think we can start the discussion.

We have only one hour. We -- well, it's 50 minutes, actually. What I intend to do is give some introductory remarks. Then I'll call on my colleague on the left from DCMS in the UK to speak about the access for the next one billion people, then she will speak about the model which we have a collaborative initiative which we have developed. We will invite participants, remote participants if they're there, and I will start some discussions.

Now, basically, you are all familiar with the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organization. For those who may not know, the CTO has evolved over the next 114 years. Next year we will be marking our 115th anniversary, and we will be having a number of events which definitely will interest you.

As some of you will know, I only took up this position just about seven weeks ago, and I set up on the five-point agenda.

The first is on cyber security, including child online protection, the global countries which are 53 in number, and with the population of one and two billion. Have about 60% of those who are youths.

So cyber security, it's a very important issue for the government and other stakeholders.

The second agenda that I have is broadband, having countries to be able to establish a very good broadband policy, strategy, and implementation.

Thirdly, the -- we have issues to do with revolution, the need to establish a revolutionary environment and Facebook who I call the Face of Facebook on public policy in Africa. I'm just going through my five-point agenda, which I'm sure you may be familiar with.

We've talked about cyber security, we've talked about broadband. The third point is regulatory environment, and this includes spectrum licensing and issues.

Fourthly, IT applications where we encourage the use of ICT in various sectors of the economy, in education, health, and so on.

And lastly, to use the CTO, drawing from the mandates of the ICT ministers, so engage the global community on global ICT agenda, so these are the five areas that I'm working on in the next four years.

The last part is what brings us here today. What I talk about is I went to the 55th ICANN meeting in Dublin to familiarize myself with the community there, and we did have a Commonwealth GAC meeting. It is the Government Advisory Committee that provides advice to the ICANN board, and there's a lot of things going on in the transition which I'm sure we're already familiar with.

In October we called a vehicle meeting of the Commonwealth countries in the UK where we tried to get a strategy on the current and the ongoing World Leaders Conference, which started last week in Geneva. We had a preparatory meeting, and that led to a number of decisions which we are now -- last week the conference started. There were about 3,000 delegates there. We had the first coordinational meeting last week, and today the last 20 minutes they've just had the second Commonwealth coordination neglect Geneva, and that will continue.

So today we are on the sideline of this IGF, convening Commonwealth IGF to gather some thoughts on what issues we could be discussing at the first stand-alone Commonwealth IGF, which we may be having next year.

Having said that, I just want to reemphasize the fact that wealth administers -- the Commonwealth ministers met last year. They have a model which is now being used in a number of countries with the assistance of the CTO. As we are speaking currently, we have experts in Fiji who are helping to develop a strategy, and what they are doing is to ensure the government involves all stakeholders in the development of the policy, the strategy, so at the end of the day, the -- whatever comes out of it becomes the policy which has been adopted and elaborated by the whole community, not just the government imposing a framework on a society, so we put a lot of emphasis on stakeholder participation.

I did mention about the Commonwealth GAC and the Commonwealth IGF which we are hoping to have. We also on the sidelines would like to provide a possibility in a number of areas. For example, we're working with Africa to encourage the transition to IPv6. That's one of the areas that we are also assisting with.

With these few remarks, let me stop here, and if you have any questions, you can raise before I pass the mic to Mike. There's a paper we passed around to put your contact. Does anybody have any questions? Yes, please. Please introduce yourself, who you are, and who you work for. Thank you.

>> JIMSON OLUFUYE: Thank you very much, Secretary General, and congratulations. My name is Jimson Olufuye. I'm the chair of the 23-nation African ICT Alliance, an alliance of ICT associations and companies, small or large, across 23 countries in Africa. My day job is as the CEO in Kontemporary Konsulting Company. We work on data sectors and community arena. I want to congratulate you on the five-point agenda and ask some follow-up questions concerning this agenda. Very robust indeed.

Broadband is very key, and I'm happy that is number one because it has a multiplying effect of boosting the economies of the Commonwealth countries in the global South. I want to ask what CTO will be focusing on with respect to the issue of transparency and accountability on the use of funds across member states because this -- there are a lot of challenges, and we are getting results on the expenses in this regard, ruling out infrastructure through the areas and on the south areas as well.

Then two, just two questions for now. The second one, you are having collaboration with GAC, very good, and also the technical community. How about the business community? That's the question.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Well, thank you very much. Very quickly, we got to the concept of USPF, which this is the Universal Service Provision Fund in Nigeria. In general, what you do is assist our countries. One, for those who may want to develop a framework for universal access and service provision, we provide best practices. You may wish to know and some are surprised that even the UK that's advanced, the government has -- provides a lot of funding for companies like British Telecom to provide access to those areas where they are not commercially viable, so what we do is for countries that are interested, we provide best practices, we provide capacity building. Just two weeks ago, we assembled some very top-level members of the board from various countries, Bangladesh, Uganda, everywhere, and we exposed them to some of these strategies, and countries from that. There's still one single framework that you can't say it's perfect. In Nigeria, for example, they have a separate structure, although which is part of the regulated authority. In Ghana, it's a different agency that does each, and they all work, but what we do is to share these experiences with other countries.

We know there has been some unfortunate developments, particularly on the part of parliamentarians who saw -- like they just did the -- we have seen areas where regulators also fall into that trap. We want to encourage them, so if we did have, definitely we can assist you on that. Broadband is key. There are a lot of issues to do with broadband. We emphasize on the government ability to define a clear target, what does the president himself -- what does he want to see in schools, what kind of access does he want to assure that -- at the community level to assure that there is, you know, access and capacity in the next five years, what is his target for secondary schools, what is the target for institutions, what is his target for health institutions, what is the target for rural areas, for urban areas, so once all these are defined and you go through regulatory issues, and there is a myriad of issues on tax, on multiple regulation that we also assist countries to develop on.

There is also the issue of audits, and we are going to be looking at that. There are consents from the agencies themselves, the consent from operators, so we will be looking at some study, which will include these models, regulated frameworks, and how best to approach these issues.

When you talk about business community, we collaborate with everyone. If you, you know, find a need that we also see that we help any of the business community, we're definitely prepared to assist, so that's a short answer. Thank you.

Any other question, comments? Yes, please.

>> AUDIENCE: Thank you. My name is Mike from the (Inaudible). I just want to support my colleagues from the business sector. I think in your five pillar, we have two key area where the business sector are have a key role to play, but when you talk about ICT application in various sector, it's not up to the government to develop this. You can talk to me. There is an application on E-government, but I think it is -- this is up to our sector to develop this application. Broadband also, the business sector has important role to play. I think in your number 5 in the collaboration with CTO, we can take a look at how the business sector or how the organization in Africa can collaborate with you to develop this road map, but for me my first impression is very interesting, and UNECA is also very available to work with you in several area because we are already in all this activity. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you very much for those comments. I didn't mention to you that that is a membership organization. We have members who are from the Commonwealth, we have members who are member state governments, we have member state governments that are not Commonwealth members, and we have a large sector members. We have telecom UK, British Telecom UK, and smaller companies. Just today I got news that British Institutes has applied to be a member, and we have quite a few of them who are coming in, so we take the requirements of this business community very seriously. They drive our agenda, we invite them to our events, we give them opportunities to provide the information on the subjects which they provide, so I will encourage anyone to become part of our membership, and the membership fees are quite attractive. They are low, so it's easy to join, and I will send you an application form. Before I get to London. Thank you very much. Any other questions, because we still have the agenda.

And ECA, like we discussed, definitely we'll be collaborating with you, and I see some synergies in what we're doing. Thank you. Tony, please.

>> TONY: Thank you. I too would like to congratulate you on your appointment, and also remark that I notice you're real tight today, you're ground running, and that is impressive.

Thank you very much for the five-point agenda, and one more point that I just want to seek authority is on cyber security, the issue of cyber security, which is one of the five points, and I do realize that this is a very, very critical area because things like E-commerce, E-applications, those are unavoidable, and the world is definitely going that way. UGS in Africa, we are going that way, but the only risk, the only danger that we foresee is that area of cyber security because we realize the Internet is just a wide, wide network which is very open and which is very risky, very dangerous. The cyberspace is very, very dangerous because you don't know where the enemy, where the enemy's sitting, and then you could be -- the server -- the person could be sitting in South Africa, the server is in the Bahamas, and they strike in India, so we just want to -- I just want to find out what sort of programs you have in mind in terms of that area, and I notice also the biggest challenge is public awareness.

So the public, because they are not aware of the risks, they just -- like take even someone like me. I've realized

if -- I might want to buy something online, for instance, but out of there, there's so many people that are selling -- so many institutions that are selling, but they don't secure their websites, so the moment I use my credit card on that site, next thing I hear my credit card is being used in Russia, and I've never been to Russia.

So the results, everybody I talk to, I'm warning them about buying things online, because you might get your things afterwards, but if they don't protect their site -- the payment models, what do you call them? If there's no protection, definitely then the customers -- I just want to find out what sort of programs -- what angle you are tackle this, especially given that the threat can come from member countries, city or member states, and non-city or member states. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Well, thank you very much. I'm glad that Tracy's here. He will talk about the model -- the initiative which we developed with the concept. Now, we don't have one size that fits all. We have a model, and what we do is that based on each country's request, we then respond. For example, Botswana, where you're currently based, did request us to assist to prepare a cyber security strategy, so we sent it in there and start with the officials there, the whole community, and we looked at existing legislation and said how do we go from here.

Using the model, we then assisted them in developing the strategy. That process is ongoing.

Now, in Nigeria, they tell us the issue right now is cybercrime, how do we fight cybercrime, so we told them what you can do is you've already adopted a cybercrime legislation, cyber act legislation. Now we need to have awareness, how do we put that act in practice, what strategy are you going to adopt to tackle cybercrime, so next month we're having an event in Nigeria, a three-day event where we'll bring in exerts from UK and also local expertise from South Africa, from Ghana, and sit with all the local communities and target, one, the telecom service providers who sit together, look at the current acts, look at where the act is failing, if you like, look at the role that each one can play, and develop a strategy for implementation, so it varies from country to country, but all start with the model that we have adopted, which the ministers have adopted, so our work is based on the request of members. Thank you.

>> PANELIST: Okay. Very good, but I have one problem. You know, in Africa we have this AU commercial and cyber security and data protection adopted by the eight of states, and I don't know how many members' country -- how many country are member of -- how many African country are member. In Africa, yeah, but the issue is you have all this cybercrime governance. How we can -- we need to compare -- we need collaboration between the CTO and AEC, yeah, it's very important, but now this -- this core has been adopted since January by the eight of state, and some countries start now to transpose this law at the national level, and I think it's very -- it's a good opportunity to have the -- to have a discussion with AU to see how we can combine these two strategy, yeah, as a way we are going to develop.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Good. Thank you. I approached -- at least my approach is to be -- since we're dealing on a country-by-country level, we go to the country and then we also examine all the legislation around that country, take Nigeria for example. We look at what they've done. We look at what the AU has done because Nigeria belongs to the AU. We also look at the Budapest Convention, so in our work we make sure that at the end of the day, we want Nigeria to sign up to that convention all the requirements there, and that's how we approach. The end of the day we want to make sure Nigeria has a model that suits Nigeria and comes into conformity with all the agreements they've made with other stakeholders, so we are working together.

Last month I was in Dublin, and we had a very good discussion to extend that. When we called the GAC meeting, we actually combined it with the African meeting, and it -- they provided us free lunch, you know, so

(Laughter)

Thank you. Let's stop there and let's pass the mic to Mark. Mark works with policy issues with the government. He'll tell us what they're dealing with over there.

>> MARK CARVELL: Thank you very much. Good morning, everybody. I'm glad you could make it despite all the competing demands on your time with this IGF program. It's very good of you to join us. And it's much appreciated.

One of the keys from this IGF is a document that's called IGF Policy Options for connecting the next billion. Maybe you are well aware of it. It's the product of a year-long program of intersessional work, which the IGF Multistakeholder Advisory Group, the MAG, which I'm a member of, set in train.

It's -- it's had inputs, over 80 contributions to it, including from regional IGFs such as the African IGF, the Asia Pacific IGF, the Latin American and Caribbean IGF, and the European IGF called EuroDIG, so Commonwealth communities and stakeholders have all contributed to this very important document, and it's a very timely document because bridging the digital divide is a key issue which is being discussed in the UN General Assembly at this time as part of the review of the implementation of the outcomes from the World Summit of the Information Society in 2005, and also the system of development goals have just been agreed, so this document is a demonstration of how the IGF has been engaging on the issues of sustainable development and the contribution that the ICTs and in particular the Internet and access to the digital economy plays in achieving social and economic goals and realizing sustainable development and bridging the divide. Three billion are connected to the Internet now, but four billion still are not able to benefit from the social and economic aspects, the benefits, the social-economic benefits which the Internet brings.

So that's a huge challenge, and this is a major step forward, this document, and it's a tool, it's a resource. If you've looked at it, which I strongly encourage you to do, there are two particular papers. There's a synthesis document and a compilation of the inputs, and the synthesis document sets out five -- has five sections, five areas of activity: Developing infrastructure, increasing availability, enabling users, assuring affordability, and policy options for creating the environment.

So these are all key issues and has a number of recommendations flowing from the inputs on these issues, so the question is what can we in the Commonwealth community do to take this output document forward at this time and the Commonwealth session here and also Commonwealth meetings in other forum, including ICANN, which is a touched-on area, we have the Commonwealth community in ICANN can have a role to play, and I -- I set out very briefly here some sort of options that we might consider.

First of all, can we as a Commonwealth community help disseminate this outcome document and its recommendations and policy options in a quick and effective way? So the people who need to need it, the government policymakers, the private-sector community, and other stakeholders involved in creating the enabling environment for access to the Internet and bringing more communities onto the Internet so that they benefit from all the applications and innovations that the Internet can provide.

So there's a question of disseminating this outcome, what can we do to play our part as a community of countries and stakeholders to increase awareness of it and promote its take-up, because it is a tool, it's a resource.

We also have the opportunity, as Shola hinted at earlier, with regard to creating a forum for discussion of this. We have had a Commonwealth Internet forum entity in the past. It has met with stakeholders during the Global IGF, and there has been a very useful website, a portal for promoting information and promoting engagement and interaction. That website is currently dormant. CTO is looking at reviving and developing it as a Commonwealth tool on Internet governments, so there is the opportunity to use the Commonwealth IGF website and to develop engagement, and India has -- the Indian government has indicated that they are looking at the possibility of convening a Commonwealth Internet Governance Forum meeting in the middle of next year, where that could be a platform for reviewing this document and enacting cooperation between governments, private sector, and other stakeholders to take forward some of the recommendations in this document.

So it's timely for us to consider this, I think, as a Commonwealth community, and I look forward to hearing your views at this meeting now, your first take, if you like, on how we should take this important work of the IGF forward intersessionally, through activities during the next year, leading up to the next IGF, and we're pretty confident that the review in New York will renew the mandate of the IGF and that there will be an IGF in Mexico. Mexico, as you may well know, has offered to host IGF 11 next year.

So I invite your views on this, and we haven't got much time for a substantive discussion now, of course, but we can carry on online with views and suggestions to take forward this work of the IGF. Thank you, Shola.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you much. Any comments? Yes, please.

>> PANELIST: Yeah, thank you very much for that brief.

I think there's something we can add, you know, for example, to the policy option, connecting -- the capacity building. It has been highlighted in this meeting the gigantic step taken in Nigeria to deepen IGF discussions, even down to the grass-roots, talking about subnational IGF, so I think it would be a good thing to append that document and also to have you underscore getting more people in the grass-roots to understand the issues.

For example, cyber security is a major thing for CTO. I think people need to do something themselves. When you talk about cyber security, it's not something you have to do up there, but basic no know-how and using tools, for example, people knowing how to activate parental control. Something like that will prevent children from being barred from the Internet. There are a lot of tools there that will help children to learn, but they just need to know how to control it, so those are the things we really emphasize again going forward. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you for that. Yes. Can we -- thank you.

>> BELINDA EXELBY: My name's Belinda Exelby. I'm with GSMA. We are an associate member of the CTO, so it's very nice to be here and meet you again, everyone new in your roles, so congratulations. With regard to the capacity building related to Internet governance and some of the issues you've just mentioned around child protection and so on, I wanted to flag that the GSMA has a capacity-building program and we have courses on both of those issues, which we'd be very happy to share with the CTO, allow you to use with your members, maybe post the materials on your website. That would be helpful. That would obviously be free of charge, there's no cost involved, and we're happy to come to perhaps any of your meetings if you would like to deliver any of those courses to your members, so I just thought I'd bring that up.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you very much. Just to let you know, I'm still expecting a response from GSMA. We're having a cybercrime workshop in Nigeria. Check your email.

>> BELINDA EXELBY: I can confirm we're sending a speaker.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Oh, good. Good. You've made my day.

>> MARK CARVELL: Just a quick reaction on whether we should focus on specific topics. That was one of my questions, really, as we look ahead to further discussions in a Commonwealth Forum. If we do that, what particular topics might they be, possibly child protection, and Commonwealth has done work on child protection. There was a toolkit that was developed as one of the first tangible outputs from the Commonwealth IGF, but we can look at that whole area again and issues of parental controls and advice on that is one aspect of that, of course. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: So do we have any specific -- yes, please.

>> PANELIST: I have only one remark. The issue of IGF is very important for all, but we should recognize the input of the government are very low, very low for government in IGF process, and when you -- in Africa and the national level also, some country have national IGF it doesn't have. I think CTO can help, plus this national IGF as a subnational level. You don't have any at a subnational level.

And also, we have African IGF, but the issue is to create this national IGF and also to try to convince the government to be more involved on the IGF issue, but you have several important issues to discuss, broadband, regulatory ICT application, but as a first follow-up, the access is very important for the -- to get access is very important. I think it is one you should look at carefully.

My question is more how to fund a mechanism to involve more government in the IGF process. He highlighted very well the link of this IGF and the sustainable development goal, yeah. The government will be in one -- maybe around '15-16 December in New York to have a resolution on the WSIS and the IGF, but we need to have the discussion beyond -- before and to come to adopt one document three months before. The development is very important. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you. Yeah, Tony, please.

>> TONY: Thank you. I'm not sure if I indicated earlier, I'm Tony, the executive director. I just want to seek clarity -- thank you for providing us some information on what is happening, the document that we are now going to look forward and peruse use, but I just wants to bring up what Belinda brought up because we are in partnership with the GSMA and members came to gave us the training, so I just wanted to find out whether that information is indeed protected by IP or proprietary information, which we can actually post on our websites freely and if we can actually get more than what we already have because I attended as well the training, and I realized how very, very useful it is. It opened my eyes to so many issues, which we always take for granted, or not even take into account, especially concerning the child online protection, so I just wanted to seek more clarity on those issues which Belinda raised. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you. Yes, quickly.

>> PANELIST: Thank you very much for your comment and your kind words, and I'm really, really pleased you found it so useful. The materials are not protected by any sort of copyright. You're free to post them if you wish, and just to let you know, we've also started rolling out some of our causes online. There are only two so far. One is the child protection cause, so people can take them remotely. They last for four weeks. You commit to do a couple hours per week of study, but that's not option. We're very happy to share our materials. We believe examples of best practice, and they don't steer any particular position, they're just basically explaining the fact as educational material, so thank you for the question.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you. Without any other comments, then I'll go to Tracy to tell us what about the current cybercrime initiative.

>> TRACY HACKSHAW: Thank you, Secretary General, and welcome to all to Brazil. I hope you're having a good time.

So I'm here to report on the Commonwealth initiative, which is a initiative to assist member through a multistakeholder partnership for a program to reduce cybercrime.

Now, this initiative is truly multistakeholder. The CCI was created in 2011 under the auspices of the Commonwealth Connects program, which was itself created by the Commonwealth heads of government in their 2005 in Malta. This was to bridge the digital divide. This was endorsed by a program during a 2011 meeting in Peru. How does ECI work? It is a coordination body based with the Secretariat which uses a multistakeholder policy model to coordinate 14 organizations and member countries to conduct scoping missions and implement action plans.

Members of the consortium bring specific cybercrime skills to the consortium and collect synergies to help countries. It's located at the Secretariat and coordinated by Secretariat staff. The CCI acts as a consultant body and to the Commonwealth Secretariat on cybercrime, and there's a steering committee, which is with country members such as Canada, Fiji, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Uganda, and others, and there are institutional members, Commonwealth Secretariat, Interpol, and we have other state departments.

The consortium just briefly consists of members of the ETWG, the AUC, the Caribbean Telecommunications Union, CommNet, Council of Europe, Department of International Development, UK, Interpol, Microsoft, OAS, UN, ODC, and so on.

Just to give you a brief, this year I have been -- I'll go through countries here and indicate what has been happening. If you're from that country, you may want to give some additional clarity as to what's been going on, and perhaps ask some questions.

In Ghana we established joint collaboration between the university and three institutions to build centers of excellence, completed a review of cybercrime legislation, and with the ITU developed a child online protection strategy, the presentation of which was supported by a deployment of a CPS resident criminal justice. In Botswana, they've been updating the cybercrime of 2007. In the East African region, they partnered to establish an East Africa cybercrime network, bringing together prosecutors, police, academics, and other stakeholders, including Interpol in a three-day meeting, ongoing activities including sharing of best practices and key regional trends are delivered through an online collaboration platform that the Secretariat is offering.

In countries such as Antigua and Barbados and Grenada, several assessments have been conducted including one just recently as October 2015 by joint OAS teams to produce action plans in member states. In Trinidad and Tobago several things have been happening and there's work to be done in 2015 to further this path.

In India, the CCI was represented at the India cyber security and Cybercrime conference and further dialogue was conducted. The CCI established a working group to consider the impact of currencies and member states including issues such as, of course, Bitcoin, particularly the driver of cybercrime. The purpose report is to be issued shortly, and we are joint partners in this.

We joined the Council of Europe's Budapest Convention on Cybercrime in June 2015 and the Interpol joined -- sorry -- Moving ahead in 2015-16 there will be several needs assessments being established in Caribbean region beginning in November, this month, 2015. There will be a review of the Commonwealth model and scheme focusing on improved models of mutual legal assistance and electronic rules. There will be outcomes with child online protection and university partnerships in eastern Africa, and a working group to develop technical guidance on legislative, regulatory, and criminal regulatory responses. They will continue meeting beginning Q1, 2016. And as a joint project to enhance cooperation between law enforcement and telecom sector to counter cybercrime in Nigeria. That's it for the wrap-up -- sorry, the highlights of 2015-2016, and I will hand it back over to the SG for any further elaboration. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you very much, Tracy, for that very presentation. Do you have any questions? I know we have three minutes left. There is a new -- another meeting going to be holding here. Yes. Quickly.

>> PANELIST: Yeah. Thank you for that. What is the status of SAT in these member states?

>> TRACY HACKSHAW: So the CCA has been looking at that and I'm not familiar with the best practice forward. There was an actual meeting held, I think, yesterday and discussing -- there's an African organization set up, and the -- African organization set up. As you know, the ICT has been funding CTOs around the Commonwealth and other countries, so there's an opportunity to probably use the CCI to source resources and capacity building work from CCI through the ITU and other agencies to set CSIDs and others within the African region and others.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Thank you. Mark, do you have any comments?

>> MARK CARVELL: Thank you, sir. To say briefly thank you very much for joining us today, and we look forward to your contributions, and please get in touch online about taking forward the policy options for access to the next billion paper, and specific topics that can be considered for the agenda of a physical Commonwealth meeting which India is planning to host in the middle of next year, so thank you very much for attending.

There is an attendee list I circulated, so please, if you haven't added your contact details to that, please do so as we finish this session. Thank you.

>> SHOLA TAYLOR: Well, just last point, thank you very much. I think what we're taking home from here, we've commented on the agenda which I've elaborated. We've also been informed about the cybercrime initiative. Watch out for the websites of the Commonwealth. It will be active soon. There will be a stand-alone IGF next year in India, and we wish you all the best in all your endeavors. Thank you very much. Bye.

(Applause)

(Session concluded at 1200)