IGF 2019 – Day 4 – Convention Hall I-C – OF #31 Bridging digital in a large humanitarian organization

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Berlin, Germany, from 25 to 29 November 2019. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 



>> Good morning, everybody.  For anybody online, we will be waiting a couple of minutes just so people can come into the room.

>> All right, hello everyone.  Before we waited a bit longer to see if more people will turn up.  Oh, I can see myself.

Yeah, great to see you all this morning.  Could we change back to the presentation?  Okay.  Good.

So yeah, I would like to welcome you here to the large humanitarian organization.  What we will be talking about this morn willing be mapping and how this can be utilized in the humanitarian context.  My name is Katharina Lorenz.  And we have Jeremy Mortimer and Margarita this morning as well.

So let's start with the presentation.

Shall I try the other one, maybe?  Oh, yeah.  All right.

So maps play an important role in understanding communities and especially when it comes to populations that are at risk.  And most of the developed world is mapped in high detail.  Sorry, that is confusing.  That threw me a bit now.  Okay.  Yeah, most of the developed world is mapped in high detail.  But obviously, one of the areas where populations are at risk, those maps are not available.

Who of you has heard about open street map?  No?  Okay, so half of the people have.  Have not.  So let me explain OpenStreetMap to you.  It works on the same concept of Wikipedia when you're probably all familiar with. so it's map.  So anyone can add to OpenStreetMap.  Can edit it.  Can use it for their needs as long as they attribute the source as OpenStreetMap.

And it creates a free database with data available to anyone which covers the entire world.

But the problem here is that, again, the focus on OpenStreetMap has been on the first world and areas like Africa, South East Asia, Latin America are poorly mapped.

Therefore, the Red Cross, MSF and humanitarian OpenStreetMap team have decided to create missing maps which was founded five years ago.  And missing maps basically using the OpenStreetMap as a platform and builds on that and then maps areas in vulnerable, maps in the world where you have populations at risk.

So how does that work now?  You can see an example of a map that many NGOs have to work with.  In this area, you have a population of 80,000 people.  And you can see if you have a disaster or an epidemic outbreak, this map is very difficult to work with.  You don't know anything about the connectivity, where are the populations centered.  So it's very difficult to plan a response.  So in that scenario, Missing Maps can help you.

So Missing Maps consist of three steps.  The first steps are where remote volunteers come together and they then use satellite imagery or aerial imagery and use that to trace building, roads, or river, or even land use.

And this data then out mat include gets fed into OpenStreetMap.  And the second step, we work together with local communities so it can be our Red Cross volunteers in the country where we have a mapping campaign.  And they then go out with the map that has been created by remote volunteers and use those map, could be in the printed form or you can put it on a mobile device, tablet, and then they go around to communities and small teams and add in additional information.  For example, what's the name of a road p what's the build, is it a hospital?  Is it a school?  Depending on the project, you might record information about what is the structure of the building.  You know, for example, if you're working an earthquake‑prone area, you might want to record, is this a concrete building or is it brick and so on.

And then this information, those attributes get added back into OpenStreetMap when the volunteers come back from the field.  And then in the third step, this information is available to all humanitarian organizations to use.  So it's not just used ‑‑ if it's a red cross campaign, it can still be used.  That's the good thing about making it open source, anyone can then use it.

Here we can see an example of the first step.  So you can see the satellite image and how then the buildings get traced.  By the volunteers.  Here we've got the second step.  Where you can see the local volunteers have the mapping information on a tablet.  And then pre‑defined form will spin so they can easily add the information that's relevant for their project.  This is an example of before and after a mapping campaign which was for the Ebola response in the Democratic Republic of Conga.  The OpenStreetMap maybe just showed the name of the roads and settlements and surrounding areas.  But after the mapping campaign, you can see we have a much more detailed road network.  We have individual houses.  More information about place names and so on.  And this information was gathered by, I don't know 400 volunteers in very quick time.  It didn't take very long.  Normally creating such a map in such a detail would take months, but because of the community effort, such maps can be built very quickly.

Yeah, now I would like to hand over to my colleague Lucy who will tell you how this mapping information is then used in Red Cross projects

>> LUCYY PRICE:  Exactly.  Thanks.  So today I'm going to talk to you about forecast‑based financing.  Is this familiar to anyone in the room?  Excellent.  Okay.

So forecast‑based financing is an approach that enables humanitarian funding for early actions based on in‑depth risk analysis and impact‑based mapping.  And so essentially, what the goal of FBF is to anticipate disaster, prevent their impact, and reduce human suffering and losses.  Please come in and have a seat.

So maybe a little bit to this funny name.  Forecast‑based financing, what does this mean exactly?  Forecast‑based as you can probably infer, this is about weather forecasts.  As everyone sitting in the room as well as joining us online knows very well, we have incredible access to data and information.  And weather forecasting continues to increase in accuracy and efficiency.  So forecast‑based decision making and financing.  Why financing?

Traditionally with humanitarian assistance, with the weather forecast, for example, we know a cyclone is approaching five to seven days.  With traditional humanitarian assistance, you wait for the cyclone to make landfall.  Wait for the money.  And then you act.  With forecast‑based financing, we're trying to shift and close this gap in anticipation so we can act earlier, and we need the funds to do so.

So the financing part comes into play because we've developed a financing mechanism hosted by IFRC, by the forecast‑based action by the DREF.  So we are working with national societies to enable them to act earlier.  And you can access this funding by developing what is called an early action protocol.  So a list of all of the actions that you want to take in this short window of time before that forecast and the impact of this disaster.

And with this early action protocol, it's full of roles and responsibilities, a whole plan that can be unlocked as soon as this trigger has been reached.  So how do we know what early actions to include in this protocol?

We know this through risk assessments.  So step one, here you can see our FBF methodology on the screen.  Step one, we work together with national societies, with agencies, with disaster risk management authority, communities, researcher, scientists, in order to sit down and first assess what hazards a country faces, which regions are most exposed, and who is vulnerable.  And this is where mapping becomes instrumental.  FBF started in 2014.  So this is a new, exciting project.  And as you can see currently, now FBF is being applied to 22 countries throughout the globe and we're tackling a range of hazards ranging from floods, cyclone, cold wave, heat wave, volcanic ash, you name it.  Come in.  Come in.  Have a seat.

All right.  So how does this look in practice?  FBF in Vietnam began basically in 2018.  So Vietnam is one of the most disaster‑prone countries in the region.  And the it's one of the top five countries affected by climate change.  Heat waves pose a serious public health hazard, especially to urban populations.  And the pockets of heat waves create an urban heat island effect.  So this acutely affects people.

So the unique part about this FBF Vietnam project is that we applied FBF for the first time in an urban context.  So how do you know in a very densely populated city of 16 million people, how do you know who is most vulnerable?  How do you find them?  Where?  So we worked together the Vietnamese Red Cross, the climate center, essentially launched a very big survey called the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey.  And interviewed people in all 12 districts asking questions about heat waves sensibility.  You know, do you ‑‑ what do you do usually for work?  Are you outside?  Can you recognize symptom of heat stroke?  To gauge sensibility.

And they combined this with mapping.  So in order to tackle these questions and really figure out the impact of a heat wave, so not the heat wave itself but the consequences of what it can do.  You have to look at vulnerability.  So as an outcome of this study, it was clear then that those most vulnerable are children under five years old, the elderly over 60, as well as people with chronic illness, diseases, and disabilities.

And then they mapped exposure.  So looking at who is most exposed during a heat wave phenomenon.  And these are people with ‑‑ living in mostly poor housing condition, informal housing conditions with little to no access to air conditioning or cooling devices.  And then of course, they layered the hazard itself on to this map.  So looking at urban heat island effects and taking satellite images and pin pointing using land surface temperatures these extreme pockets of heat within the city.

And here's the outcome.  So for an impact‑based map, you take these three layers, exposure, vulnerability, and hazard, and you layer them to create this beautiful heat wave impact index we see here.  So this is the result of examining 168 communes and what you can see on the right‑hand side are the top 15 most impacted by heat waves.  And these are also signified in the dark red pockets here outlined in green.

And so this last July in August essentially, Vietnam experienced some very hot, very humid days.  So the trigger was set at a threshold level of three consecutive days exceeding 37 degrees Celsius with extremely high humidity levels.  And using OpenStreetMap and this impact‑based map, the Vietnamese Red Cross was immediately able to then target those most vulnerable pockets of the city and open up cooling centers as well as have mobile cooling buses to provide first aid, water, and resting opportunities for over 3,000 visitors.  And this is just a simulation.  So the Vietnamese Red Cross, they're continuing to fine‑tune their early actions for their early action protocol.  So this will also expand then to further measures, for example, to address shelter retro fits in these cases.  So that's just one example of how the German Red Cross, IFRC, climate center and the national societies are using the power of OpenStreetMap and Missing Maps to better assist those most vulnerable.  And now I will hand this over to my colleague, the IFRC can give an introduction in terms of how you're applying OpenStreetMap, Missing Maps to your work.

>> MARGARITA GRIFFITH:  Hello everyone.  My name is Margarita.  And I work in the national society development department in Geneva.  I am here to hear some of the things or the projects that we are doing in terms of data literacy.  How to improve data literacy skills in our volunteers.  We believe that is important for them to also have the skills and competencies necessary to use all these new technologies.  And we are working really hard on that.  The data literacy program started three years ago with Heather Leson, she's our data coordinator.  And she has been put into place a series of strategies and projects.  One of them is using eLearning to help, to support our volunteers to get more competencies in terms of data literacy.  And right now we are working with Microsoft in developing a program called excel around the world.

We created eLearning courses to help our volunteers, to improve their skills using excel.  So through this eLearning course available right now in English, French, and Spanish, volunteers can freely online register, go to the content, and after the course, they'll be able to get the Microsoft certification in Excel.

So we believe these skills are really useful.  And they can go back to their communities and help their national society to develop volunteers, continue working on data collection projects.  So definitely having the skills will improve the work they do in the community for emergency response.

Right now, we have a list 200 volunteers taking this online course.  And we are excited, hoping that for next year, we will have the capability to have more volunteers taking the course in other languages, because we actually want to make sure that we reach out to the different countries and even in local village, they'll have the material and content necessary to develop their skills.

And another project in which I have been working closely with Heather is introductory course about data literacy for volunteers.  This is going to be launched this month actually.  And some of the topics that we are covering in this e learning course is introduction to data literacy, why data literacy matters to our volunteers, data analysis, tools for data collection, data visualization, and most importantly, how to use data for decision‑making.  So we are very excited about this course that we are doing.  In coordination with also Microsoft and 510.  And it will be launched in different languages as well.  And the idea is that we continue developing competencies and skills so volunteers can be more data literacy and support the on the work they do in the communities.

So these are some of the activities that we are doing.  And hopefully we will continue to help our national societies to become more data literacy.  And improve the transformation around the world.  Now I will pass it to Jeremy Mortimer.

>> JEREMY MORTIMER:  Hello, everyone.  I also work in Geneva with Margarita.  My particular area of focus is institutional ICT capacities in our national societies so.  Progressively more general.  I don't have that much to add in this context, but we will come back to mapping in a minute.

You would just observe that in an international network with approaching 14 million volunteers in 190 countries in the world, very much of the work that we do is in reasonably high resourced context where there is good connectivity, where our volunteers will have mobile phone, but there are nonetheless many countries in the world where we also work and where in some cases communities are particularly vulnerable and particularly vulnerable to natural disaster, for example, where access to technology and connectivity is very, very limited.  And that may also go for the national societies in those countries.  And there are problems of connectivity, there are problems of resource, there are problems of skills.  And this is the area that I look at.

In the context of mapping, the fact that the international Red Cross movement is a volunteer‑based organization, it gets a new focus because areas of vulnerability, even not connected themselves, can be mapped by people, no matter where they are in the world.  And that is an essential feature of Missing Maps.  If you have flooding, for example, and it's affecting an area which is not well represented in OpenStreetMap, those gaps can be filled in very rapidly and it doesn't have to be done by the local communities.  it can be done by anybody with access to the internet who can see the imagining and who can fill in the maps and that gives you a base map that people responding to a disaster can start with.  It is then access only the community to the extent that they have access.  But it's a new approach to volunteering.  Where certainly our volunteers are very local.  Red Cross and Red Crescent volunteers come from the communities that they serve, but also volunteers from NRI in the world can help those communities too.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Thank you.  We only have an hour for our session, so we can't show you a map.  But we introduce you to MapSwipe that anybody can use on their phone.  And it's basically a step before missing maps.  What it does is it loads satellite imagery on your phone in the app.  And then people just look at it.  First step, say, okay, in this task, I'm looking for buildings or I'm looking for roads.  And you if you see road, you swipe, and you look at the next picture and so on.  And this basically furthers the data.  I can show you here in this sky gram.  So instead of putting like massive area on to the tasking manager, which is used for Missing Maps, you already filter out the area where is you know for sure that there are no buildings or there are no roads or other infrastructure.  So then your Missing Maps campaign is more efficient, and the volunteers and the remote volunteers just spend their time digitizing instead of having to look through or where are actually those features that we are interested in.

So I now would like you to invite you to use your phone, go on the app store or the equivalent is for iPhone.  Oh, app store.  Google Play and app store.  And look for MapSwipe.  And download the app.

No, just the next 10 minutes.

>> Unless you want it to.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  So once you've downloaded it, you then need to sign up.  So has everyone managed to download it and sign up for it?  Great.

Then I'm just going to run you through it and then you get a chance to play with it as well yourself.

On the main screen, you then have different missions where all the partner organizations from Missing Maps can deploy their projects that they would like volunteers to look at.  And once you have selected a project, you see on the screen a satellite image and it's always split into six pieces.  And those six pieces in this example we are looking for buildings, you then just tell the app whether you can see a building or not.

If you're not really certain what you can see, you can enlarge one of those six pieces by just clicking on it for a longer period.  And you can see in the second screen shot how it then pops up.

Now what do you do when you see a building?  When you see a building on one of the six square, you tap once and it marks that ‑‑ yeah, that piece with a green color which then indicates there is a building there.  And then you just swipe.  And you get to the next screen.  Sometimes you might be unsure whether what you are seeing is actually a building.  So you can see here on the piece on the left, I wasn't sure whether it was a building.  So you can then tap twice.  And you can see the color changes to oranges.

And that means there might be something there but you're not quite sure what it is.

And then obviously you can come across imagery where there is cloud cover, and in which case you tap three times, and it marks those areas with a red color.  And that then tells the system there's cloud cover here.  And we actually can't tell what's underneath it.

So yeah, now I would like to invite to you have a play with it.  And yeah.  Discover it for yourself.  And it's always something people can do while you're waiting on the bus stop.  You know.  Yeah, if people have any questions while they're swiping, please ask.

>> My name is Angela.  I'm from the digital impact alliance.  So we are a program that sits with the U.N. foundation.  One of the areas where I'm looking at in particular is the procurement and financing.  And that's why I'm interested in the financing model you mentioned.  And the Red Cross has been quite innovative in some of the approaches that you're taking.  So a couple of questions.

So you have the forecast‑based funding program which I think is excellent because it gives you the money when you need it.  But how are the particular donors behind it?  Because quite often their fund willing be earmarked for particular things.  And if you come with something that maybe falls a bit outside that, I think it's difficult for the donors to manage that internally.  Their own structures might not allow them to react as quickly.  And my second question is, I'm interested, you have Red Cross, it seems like for this program being able to pull together a nice collaboration and coalition and have you any tips on how you approach that?  Or how you did that.  Because I think it's obviously more impactful because you have more entities working on it.  So any lessons learned from how you set that up or established that.  Or was it just through, you started it and others came and were interested.

>> I will maybe first answer the question regarding the financing mechanism.

So this is still donor‑driven.  This is basically, I don't know if you are familiar with the DREF.  The disaster relief emergency fund.  And so classically, I mean, this is instrumental in the case of a disaster, you submit an appeal to IFRC.  And this DREF is unlocked, essentially.  And now we have a whole segment, a new segment of the DREF, forecast‑based action by the DREF which is specifically set aside for anticipation.  So for these early actions.

And they're ‑‑ I mean, it's quite flexible, per se.  And that's because of the early action protocol.  And this is driven by national society, by communities, by all of the organizations we work with in the process of formulating this protocol.

And so this is something chosen by them with a series of early actions, roles and responsibility, budget.  There's also funding specifically for preparedness and readiness as well as the activation costs.

And each early action protocol, this fund, once it's approved by the validation committee in Geneva, this funding is basically guaranteed for five years.  Because the trigger might not be reached within a year or two.  So it's guaranteed for five years.  Set aside for all 191 national societies that submit an EAP that have that approved.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Okay, I'll take your second question.  I think using open source tools, you know, open data always helps.  I mean, Missing Maps was founded by four organizations.  And now after five years, it has grown to 18.  And given that the approach from the start very collaboratively, you know, it just made it very easy.  But obviously we do have our problems as well which is funding.  You know, funding, development of software tools is not as sexy as providing disaster relief, you know.  So we do have problem there.  But the working together, you know, and how all the different organizations are using it or maybe even using it in same countries and similar areas, you know, that tends to be fairly easy, you know, than the way the different actors can talk to each between each other and the different mapping campaigns.  Yeah?

>> I am information scientist.  And I work with disaster risk reduction organizations, national European and with UNDRR.  And I appreciate very much these free and open crowd sourcing geo information that is at your door.  Nevertheless, I have the impression, especially since we are here on the United Nations governance, one should at least mention the framework of the other very long standing and very important, also for these management tasks or first assistance disaster preparation and so on.  I just want to mention a few because some of the colleagues sitting here may not have ‑‑ may have the impression that all assistance in disaster depends on crowd source information.  So it's just a remark.  I know people working with you and developing these things.  Sometimes I see it a tendency to say it's only these crowd sourcing information.  It's not.  And let me urge very shortly other organizations like U.N. Spider there is a space‑based information system of remote sensing data which nowadays goes down to 20‑centimeter resolution on ground.  And it tells you, it's very helpful to have this.  Then there is for the disaster case, international charter on space and major disasters which there are space agencies put together which in the case of disaster relief, in six hours, they come up with rapid mapping, so‑called rapid mapping products which exactly is assist the first decisions on how to get the finance and how to help.  How large is the disaster in monetary aspect to send rescue troops, to send assistance, food, and whatever?  So certainly not based on crowd‑sourced information.

And this is based on long years of negotiation to do exactly this as adequate as funding organizations, world bank, the real big people that gives them money to do.

And then we have on the professional side, I just recommend to look at the international (?) association which also has a lot of, even commissions on disaster.  And then for free and open, you should mention these remote sensing data you're dealing with.  Most of it nowadays in Europe comes from the system.  And this is free and open, even for non‑European countries.  And this could be a basis for this.

Now I think we should have joined forces because to make sure, yes, where is exactly the positive additional, very helpful add‑on that crowd‑sourced information can get, remote sensing cannot get.  That is certainly very good point.  And I appreciate very much.  But please put it in the larger framework because it's important to spread out the news, yes, humanity is not only dependent on crowd‑sourced information.

>> JEREMY MORTIMER:  You're absolutely right about that.  You will have noticed that the Missing Maps project depends on aerial imagery.  And the aerial imagery so certainly not crowd sourced.  Where the Missing Maps project and crowd sourcing adds value is it enables the humanitarian community and volunteers connected to humanitarian community to fill in gaps quickly where there's an immediate humanitarian need.  I suppose it's conceivable that level of mapping down to building level and particularly in rural communities might fairly rapidly be done by artificial intelligence tools.  But for the time being, the contribution of a group of volunteers rapidly filling in a map where there's a humanitarian need is very important.

And to go one step further, one of the most impressive bits of mapping which has been filled in like this is the Marabi.  A slum of, well, maybe quarter to half million people.  In an area of little more than a square kilometer.  Which is mapped down to the level of individual small buildings together with the location and resources such as health centers and connectivity centers and things like that which has all been done by volunteer mapping.

So yes, this couldn't happen without the major investment by international agencies, by corporate entity, et cetera. but the added value of Missing Maps is that it fills in precisely where there's a humanitarian need and where the more formal mechanisms tend sometimes to leave gaps.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Thank you.  We now would like to use the last quarter of an hour to put questions to you.  If we could switch back to the presentation, please.

So we have prepared three questions.  And I mean, we are not that many people, but maybe we could form three teams or three groups ‑‑

>> LUCYY PRICE:  Or maybe everyone can just contribute from where you're seated.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Or maybe just have an open discussion may be best.

>> LUCYY PRICE:  Yeah.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  So the first question, how could OpenStreetMap and Missing Maps support your work?  And then how could your organization support OpenStreetMap and Missing Maps?  And the last one, what partnerships could be applied to  OpenStreetMap and Missing Maps?  So we really would welcome your thoughts on this.  And you are all invited to contribute to this discussion.

>> I don't know how concrete this is, but there is a lot of discussion at the moment within the U.N. and the high‑level panel on digital corporation around digital public goods.  And I think this is essence is a digital public good.  It may add on to other existing materials.  So one of the possible areas to look at, I think, and this is very UNICEF and the ITU, the international ‑‑ yeah.  So they are starting a project looking at digital public goods.  Making them available.  How to access them.  My own organization, we also have an almost catalog of existing open source digital public goods.  So those may be entities to think about or talk to or if you consider this as a digital public good, it becomes recognized as such formally and gets into that realm.

>> Personally the strategic task, we are here in internet governance.  So something like asking for cooperation is one of the part of the strategy.  Nevertheless, from the information, general information point of view, I think, one should address, as you said in one example of the financial aspect, there are other domains where you need a lot of social demographic data.  So to do something, to make really decision making, put it into decision‑making, you would need typically a lot of other data for certain courses.  There's a lot of discussion in data sources.  And the framework text directly lists what is necessary.  Also in the geo information field.  Very specific.  And very interesting.  I recommend everyone to look into framework.  The question for me is, how do start working on this.  Say it would be necessary to find some test beds like having some disaster, take one disaster and try to put those data that are available in something like a test bed where other colleagues can try to recap kind of what happened, what has been decided, and what has been done, and what was wrong or not.  So this is a larger framework.  Nevertheless, geo information which is also not official one would be very important to go in this.  For what is also required and several U.N. framework that is accountability.  So geo information and accountability.  There will be something where say, yes, it would be some strategic point, how can it assist, where are those cases where we have the documentation and I tell you, it's an agreement general in our communities that we don't have a single idea how to (indiscernible)  Where do you put the results?  Not just in OpenStreetMap.  But the use of it.  For certain analysis in a disaster, for later phases, to go back to this time of ‑‑ what was the decision on what data was the decision made for financing?  Because also in financing, there is a lot of things that go wrong.  And the question is, in society would be interested to see on what type of information was that decision for financing made?  That is accountability.  And that will be something that we are really would appreciate very much.  And several of U.N. frameworks takes now require accountability.

>> JEREMY: that's a very good point to the extent that humanitarian responses increasingly based on data sets rather than a sort of rule of thumb or an assessment written on paper.  Those data sets continue to exist after the emergency.  When we have time to look back and see what happened in real time during the emergency and what we did about it.  There is a considerable growing amount of sharing of data sets, for example, in humanitarian data exchange.  And I know that some national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies are already sharing certain data sets there.  For the moment, I think it's mostly persistent information, things like location of branch offices and things like that, mapping information.

But these data sets don't go away.  And the data sets even generated rapidly during emergency response, they didn't go away either.  So I think you're absolutely right, we can at a later stage go back and see what did we do, was it is best thing we could have done, what other approaches, if we thought of it at the time, it were existence of that data offered us.  So, yes, I completely agree.  Possibly not the thing to think about while you're in the middle of an emergency response, but the fact that the data sets are still there is very powerful.

>> Over there, I see habitat.  Is that U.N. habitat you're working with?  Because that will be totally interesting.  You see, because we are missing these links also.  Because even Red Cross and habitat.  And DRR the habitat program.

>> So it is actually related to the habitat summits organizing every 20 years.  And I am working for them, a non‑profit based in Istanbul, Turkey.  However the topics that we cover, or projects are not really, really related to.  But since it's also including digitalization of a nonprofit or like humanitarian organization, I was interested in how it's working.

>> We are looking for urban heat waves.  Big topic or something.  Or urban flooding.  Or urban sustainable development in general.  And all these U.N. sub organizations, they work obviously sometimes in parallel.  I see these topics should be somehow at least communicated upwards in United Nations that we have to look what the United Nations themselves call coherence.  So if SDG and habitat, that is one of just, for example, one of my best convincing (indiscernible), so we cannot work without coordination with habitat and that coherence, management principle that United Nations also, accountability and coherence, new buzzwords but when you see what is the practical aspect, you come to how to join forces for exactly knowing what is happening and bigger city, smaller city, and how there is resilience to be supported and all these things.  And of course, U.N. information is absolutely right with that.  But since we do not have all the location of all the actors and all the resources that we have in urban domain, then we have to make join forces that what habitat need also should be available and coordinated in the same way and not do it in parallel, please.

>> JEREMY MORTIMER:  Again, publication of data sets makes the collaboration easier because you don't necessarily need to know that a partner organization exists until you find a data set which contributes something to the work or analysis you're doing in a particular area.  So you know, if habitat publishes a data set on a particular area which I'm interested in and doing either current or retrospective work on and I find that data set, I know habitat are contributing to building a better overview of the situation.  Which will help us as well.

>> Good morning.  Sorry for coming late.  I am not from this field of geographical information system, more from the security part.  But we started working on a strategic assessment of digital tools that could be used in our environment.  And we work in different topics and it's called tech detector.  And I could put new contact with our colleagues that work on this, because it might be interesting to include your tool in exchange with them.  So it's an open tool for everybody.  But especially for our surrounding to see that people whatever there.  And issue is to check whether this could, if they find some tech solution that might fit.  And yeah, we also are constantly looking for partners to step in.  So it's called tech detector.  And I'll give you, put you in contact if you're interested.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Thanks everyone for your contribution.  We are nearly at the end of our session now.  So I don't know if there are anymore questions from the audience?  Yes?

>> I was actually looking through your website while this whole discussion was going on.  And I was trying to find out about what countries or regions are a part of the project.  Because I'm not sure if Turkey is a part of it, maybe when I go back, I can look ways to be a part of it.  Thanks.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Do you mean now the Missing Maps website?

>> Yeah, the whole application of Missing Maps.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Yeah, so Missing Maps is community of several organizations.  So you've got loads of Red Cross, MSF and you also have research organizations.  You've got humanitarian actors like Map Action.  And anyone is free to join.  So if there's a particular organization in Turkey you could think of that would be suitable and that has interest and would benefit from using those data sets, they could then approach Missing Maps and seek to join them.  Or you could also approach the humanitarian OpenStreetMap team.  So if Turkey works in areas which aren't particularly mapped to a high detail, they could also just maybe try it out and collaborate and work on a task to see if it would actually benefit them.

>> JEREMY MORTIMER:  One might be the Turkish Red Crescent.  We could ensure they know about this.  And obviously, they're very technically sophisticated, I'm sure they would be able to organize map‑a‑thons and things themselves if they wanted to.

>> LUCYY PRICE:  Yeah, I would briefly like to respond to your earlier point and agree with you.  Coherence, accountability, collaboration, and the support and linking to the global frameworks like the SDGs are of course key to continuing to really move as a movement, not only within the Red Cross and Red Crescent but beyond that with our partners doing such amazing work.  And you listed so many.  The wealth and breadth of initiatives and action is really impressive.  And this presentation was just a short look into what we do.  And I didn't get to address the point that this is a movement beyond Red Cross and Red Crescent.  We work closely with partners like world food program, with start network, and this has been a joint initiative so that it is not just a siloed process.  And of course, FBF, it links to preparedness and response, so these linkages ensure that we are continuing to enhance collaboration and coordination and in an evidence‑based way.  And mapping and the collection and aggregation of data is what is helping us to make sure and prove this accountability at the end and say, this is why we chose to act in this way.

So I agree with you.  And I just wanted to add a bit.  And thank everyone for joining in for the discussions.

>> KATHARINA LORENZ:  Yeah, thanks everyone for coming here this morning.  It's already been a very long week for all of you certainly.  So it's great to see you here this morning.  Thank you very much.

>> LUCYY PRICE:  Thank you.