IGF 2021 – Day 0 – Event #101 Internet - safety and development of children and young people - educational, social and legal consequences

The following are the outputs of the captioning taken during an IGF virtual intervention. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.



>> We all live in a digital world.  We all need it to be open and safe.  We all want to trust. 

>> And to be trusted. 

>> We all despise control. 

>> And desire freedom. 

>> We are all united.  

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: Good morning from Poland.  My name is Dorota Siemieniecka.  I am from Nicolaus Copernicus University.  And I am going to present to you today my topic of my speech, selected aspects of the phenomenon of cyberbullying.  But I would like to clarify the issue that I will take up in my speech.  I will present some form of cyberbullying, mainly cyberstalking.  So we need the knowledge about the tools, methods, and patterns of criminals or those with bad intentions.  So lack of this knowledge is ‑‑ brings some emotional problems for victims.  And I would like to point out that cyberstalking can be experienced by teachers and public officials.  So this is a danger of all those people because they have a lot to lose.  So stalkers use tools for communication technology to intimidate and blackmail their victims. 

Next slide, please.  So on June 6, 2011, the category of stalking crime was introduced into the Polish crime code.  And here you can see the law.  It's too big, I think.  I don't know.  But in Poland, in total 1,160 people since were tried including 172 men and 191 women.  These penalties included an independent fine, restriction on liberty, deprivation on liberty, and conditional remission. 

So the second point I first want to point to, the court convinced 69 people including 42 ‑‑ 43 men and 26 women.  Three men were tried.  So this is the problem scale. 

In the concept of stalking refers to the crime of persistent harassment by which it meant that conscious, intentional and often malicious prosecution of the other person caused by the desire to recreate or make intimate contact with the victim by the stalker.  The main point of stalker is to control over the victim.  So the most important is that they want danger in the victim as Tomaszek says, who is one of the well‑known authors in this field. 

So the violent behavior, which is categorized by repetition, intention of hurting the other person, and a sense of threat to the victim.  So it's very interesting that research about it by Mueller, Pulsar and Stewart from 1999, which implemented on the group 145 stalkers, and most of them are usually former partners, 30%.  People known from professional relationship, it's about 23% or work, 11%.  There were another research conducted on the group 15 stalkers showed that in 22 cases, the perpetrator committed a brutal violence act against a victim in the form of causing serious bodily injuries, serious ones, attempted murder and death, as Tomaszek said in his publication from (audio fading in and out).  The problem is really very serious. 

So next slide, please.  Who is the stalker?  Next slide, please.  I cannot see. 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Can you see this? 

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: May I have the next slide, please? 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Number 5 or number 4?  I think we're losing ‑‑ yes.  We just lost our presenter, unfortunately.  Should we wait until the possibility of ‑‑ our presenter is actually reconnecting with us.  If that will be impossible, then perhaps we'll change for our next presenter.  May I ask if the next presenter, just in case, is being ready?  I understand that there are some problems with connections.  And unfortunately some people have difficulty in connecting to us, including the second presenter.  So the other alternative that we have is to ‑‑ oh, we have ‑‑ we are lucky.  We are lucky.  We have you.  Please unmute yourself because we can't hear you.    (speaking non‑English language)  Can't hear you. 

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: Okay.  Is it okay right now? 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Yes.  Yes.  Now we can hear you perfect. 

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: So number 3, please.  Slide number 3, please. 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Hold on.  The floor is yours.  Don't rush.  It's okay.  It's just a technicality. 

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: Yeah.  And I'm going to describe who is the stalker.  So stalker, in the text of Katarzyna Tomaszek, in the text stalker is a psychological characteristic of tracers of crimes and persistent harassment reviewed research from many authors.  From the description, we can find the description of stalkers.  So this is men aged 35 to 40 years old, single, unmarried, mostly educated, higher intelligence quotient, often without employment, without own home, not self‑reliant, criminal record.  In the past they could have been perpetrators of domestic violence.  So when stalkers start to behave like that, they start ‑‑ when they try to regain the lost relationship, but the direction of the actions change when the victim still refuses to return to the previous situation. 

So, in fact, what is the source of the problem?  The problem is their fear for loneliness and lost relationships.  Most of those people want to be loved, as authors say.  So the next slide, please. 

So media in the hands of the perpetrator ‑‑ cyberstalking and the Internet.  So frequent forms of victim harassment take the form of frequent phone calls, sending email messages, email, SMS, sending unwanted presents, parcels, intrusive meetings, brief sexual proposals, victims tracking, (?) At the workplace or place of residence, recording victims conversations and video.  Sometimes a victim doesn't know that it is recorded.  And attacking in public places, emotional blackmail, and acts of aggression and vandalism.  So it means destruction of objects, harming animals belonging to the victims and so on.  And we can find all those features in publications of (?) and Tomaszek.  They describe very well psychological aspects of stalkers' behaviors. 

They show themselves as the victim very often.  So, in fact, they feel that they are victims.  And they can post personal content, intimate pictures, recorded conversations for information about the fragments, information about love, descriptions of sexual acts, and intimate parts about the live address, for instance.  They create sometimes on Facebook another account with photos of the victim, all with some sexual proposals.  So the problem is really, I would say, horrible.  And most dangerous is that they can also use some parts ‑‑ there are interesting publications about it.  They can ‑‑ some of the groups can use sharp objects, for instance.  So razors, knives, and so on. 

So, of course, the most important is the knowledge what to do with these problems and, in fact, our law is well prepared for that.  But the police, for instance, and prosecutors, they need the knowledge how to recognize the problem because in our mentality, we think that this is a lover.  This is a person -- it can be, of course, women or men.  But we think about the lover.  So many people do not treat this seriously.  They think, okay, maybe he or she will stop, but the situation will grow, grow and grow.  Of course, the most important is to stop the relationship with this person, not any contact with this person, and collect material for police, and also we ask the witness to see what is going on. 

And, of course – I’m going to check -- so on Facebook, we have also some conversation ‑‑ they published some conversation, intimate relations and so on I say about it.  But I would like maybe to finish about the education because education is the main point.  So we need the next slide, please.  I'm going to finish with some educational aspects. 

It means that we need a prophylactic level, a psychological and social level, intervention level.  So my department, my colleagues, we have prepared an online course for our students of pedagogy.  It was an online course for educational materials for students, and there are some ‑‑ it's 60 hours e-learning course and the modules.   (Audio fading in and out) to protect ourselves from these kind of situations, and the subject, of course, was developed by an interdisciplinary team.  So media educators, educators, specialists in the field of e-learning and multimedia and psychology also.  Its 166 students took part in this project.  And most people, the students, they learned how to solve problems dealing with aggression of other people in real and virtual space learning (audio fading in and out) institutions and constructive resolution team conflicts and effective communication as a part of teamwork and digital skills for solving problems for searching for necessary information on the web.  And, of course, the most important, how to protect ourselves, our privacy on the Internet.  Be careful with some people we meet in our lives.  And another thing is to educate how to behave in a situation of aggression and how to recognize this in our space of our social life and how to react on situations like that if we observe it as a witness. 

So this is ‑‑ I'm sorry that I cannot say more about it, but if you have any questions, let me know.  I’m just -- I think I'm on time.  This is our publications.  One is more theoretical about the source of aggression.  And another one is about the cyber aggression, how there are some ‑‑ a collection of the literature about it and some summaries of research results led in Poland by well‑known in this field, well-known authors.  So thank you very much for your attention.  If you have any questions, let me know.  Thank you. 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Thank you kindly for your presentation.  Certainly we are looking for questions.  I propose that if our audience have questions, then certainly they can direct in our forum today.  Otherwise write your questions in chat.  Contact the presenters directly.  It's all up to you. 

But as we know since its inception in 2006, IGF allow us all to sit around the table, which we are doing so today, exchanging information and sharing good practice, which the audience have the pleasure to listen to your presentation at the moment.  And once again, we are facilitating some common understanding of how to maximize the Internet opportunities, but at the same time, as the first presentation proposed, we are looking at unfortunately risks and challenges that Internet is presenting in ever‑changing progressive roles.  So I trust that you have interesting exposure, and let us wait for a few minutes for questions, if there are any.  Otherwise we'll try to link ourselves with the next presenter. 

So the floor is yours, whoever would like to ask questions, and you're most welcome to ask questions both in English as well as in Polish because that certainly can be translated in due time. 

>> MACIEJ TANAS: May I ask a question?  (Echo)

>> JANUSZ TANAS: By all means.  There is some technical problems I can see with your connection.  But by all means, if you can, you're most welcome to ask questions.  Firstly and most importantly, your microphone is switched off.  So we cannot hear you. 

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: (Speaking non‑English language)

>> JANUSZ TANAS: We can see you from a distance, but we can't see you in your slot.

>> MACIEJ TANAS: It's working.  Professor Siemieniecka, your topic was selected aspects of the phenomenon of cyberbullying.  I'd like ‑‑ I have a specific question for you.  Can the victim perceive early behavior that the person may be a stalker? 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Would you like to answer the question? 

>> MACIEJ TANAS: Where is Professor Siemieniecka?

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: Yeah, I’m here.  I’m here.

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Can you hear the question?  Have you heard the question? 

>> DOROTA SIEMIENIECKA: Yes, yes, I can hear.  Yes.

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Okay.  Would you be kind to perhaps answer the question? 

>> MACIEJ TANAS: Thank you. 

>> Dorota Siemieniecka: Yes.  So how can we recognize them?  Yeah.  So the most important is to ‑‑ we can ‑‑ we can observe -- those people who are stalkers, they are very charming, and they are very intelligent.  So that's why people sometimes family or people who surround us, they cannot believe that those people are due to be dangerous or use violence.  But the person who is in a relationship firstly should recognize what Tomaszek said in the description I showed during my presentation.  So it is a kind of profile of this person.  And also those people had some difficulties in relationships.  And (?) they have a very low level of empathy.  And those people are also very narcissistic, more oriented in themselves, very selfish, and self‑centeredness.  So it means that if we see a person like this, a person who is toxic, a person who wants to limit our relationships to other people and grab all our space and time.  So we feel sometimes that this is toxic, but we try to believe that maybe this person is jealous or maybe this person is so in love with.  So we should be very, very careful with this kind of relationship.  If someone ‑‑ we have a kind of empathy.  You know what I mean?  So first we think, okay, something is wrong.  This is toxic.  So if we feel like that, we should stop and leave it.  And, of course, another thing is connected to prosecutors and the police, which is asking some of them can ask, for instance, why did you find a person like that?  And they cannot understand the way how those people ‑‑ how they build a kind of net around the person.  So it's horrible because if a teacher is working in the school, and on the Internet can see their own portals and some sexual descriptions, for instance, they can find a photo on a sexual site, pages or something like that, it's horrible.  So it is very important to ‑‑ for this person to be – the group of people nearest, for instance, a family and colleagues from work and other people should know how to react.  So education is really very, very important, especially in the field of moral ‑‑ moral aspects and empathy and also how to collect the data and how to fight for your rights.  And I think people should be brave in this situation because it's really very difficult situation for the victim.  Thank you very much. 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Thank you very, very much for responding to that question.  We really appreciate.  You just used your time.  So thank you for being on time despite the fact that ‑‑


>> JANUSZ TANAS: ‑‑ we all endured some technical difficulties.  Somehow we had ‑‑ we overcame that problem, so thank you for being patient.  We have, I understand, the second presenter, as you can see, representing Stefan Wyszynski University.  Unfortunately there are problems connecting to the system.  So I believe that Professor Galas could be replaced if we have a replacement within our group.  If not, may I suggest that our third presenter, if you are ready and willing to take that slot and perhaps be part of that presentation, then certainly we would appreciate if this is in line with your readiness.  So please let us know if you are ready to present.  You are.  Fantastic. 

So, look, let me just connect you first with your presentation because that will be the easiest way for us all.  And I will leave the floor with you.  And please bear with us if there are any technical problems, we'll try to overcome them certainly, same way as we did with the first presentation.  But otherwise, welcome to your presentation and good luck. 

>> EUGENIA SMYRNOVA‑TRYBULSKA: Okay.  Thank you.  Ladies and gentlemen, participants of the Internet Governance Forum, good afternoon.  Dear Professor Tanas, thank you very much for my introduction.  This participation in this prestigious International Forum is a great honor for me.  Thank you for the invitation. 

Let me start.  The current pandemic does not stop its national border and affects people regardless of nationality, educational background, in (?) or gender.  This also applies to the educational system and the global transition into a virtual space.  Among the main challenges posed by learning since the pandemic, the following needs to be emphasized:  digital and technology challenges, heretofore.  Sometimes there is unequal or limited access to computer hardware, mobile devices, software, resources necessary for implementing of distance learning as well as the fast and stable Internet connection. 

Social and human challenges required and sometimes insufficient level of digital and learning competences necessary for distance learning participation, the need for permanent contact and communication between the people, emotional and psychological disorder can occur when communication is valid.  At the same time with constant contact with the digital and virtual environment, they are a risk to developing digital dimension.  Environmental challenges are the Internet can be dangerous neighborhood for everyone, but children and young people are especially vulnerable.  Users and learners should be ready for opportunities and challenges of working in global virtual space Internet. 

Remember, about safety matters, for example, cyber bullying, cyber predators, posting private information, phishing, falling for scams, accidentally downloading their post and come back to home in chat lecture in life and other. Professor Dorota Siemieniecka before presented more detail (?).  Also, cybersecurity software can help protect against threats.  The most important safety measure is open communication with young children and teens.  Next slide, please. 

As a result, of the intensive development of information technologies in order to replace the solutions that are already familiar and widely limited in their range of solution for combining traditional education with skill learning, smart education is regularly being developed.  Smart property of a system or process is manifested in its interaction with the environment and gives the system and/or process an ability to provide an immediate response to change in the external environment, adapt to transform these conditions.  Exercise self‑development and self‑control.  (?)effectively.  Smart University will perform new functions.  As the slide illustrated, the main components of a smart university could be important and necessary for development of environment. 

(?) Strategy of university development.  Formal regulation concerning future university development particularly in the area of implementing smart solutions based on macro, mesa, and micro level of documents on the international, national, and institutional label.  UNESCO, European Commission Institution, Ministry of Science and Education of Poland and University law and other regulations.  Hardware equipment devices.  For example, panoramic video cameras and  smart boards and/or interactive whiteboards.  Smart curricula, for example, adaptive program of study.  Adaptive courses with various types of teaching from face‑to‑face, blended, online, innovative master courses.  Smart system, for example, lecturing systems, systems for seamless collaborative learning, learning and content management system.  Technologies, cloud computing technologies, 3D visualization technology and other.  Smart classroom with corresponding technologies, software, hardware systems, smart pedagogy, smart education. 

Digital competence of students, lecturers administration with necessary development for blended or fully online learning.  E‑learning.  Smart pedagogy, collaborative teaching, learning by doing adaptive teaching, learning, flipped classroom inquiry-based learning and other.  The main aim of smart university development is, first of all, personalization of education and growth the quality of education.  Next slide, please. 

Some experts, for example, Picciano emphasized that just as no single learning theory has emerged for instruction, in general, as the same is true for online location.  At the same time, some service will get more relevant to online education or see a combination.  One approach that can be successfully applied to online education is technological pedagogical content known as TPACK as a way of thinking about teachers’ knowledge as they need to understand in order to integrate technology effectively in their classroom.  In TPACK, online education understanding arises from multiple interactions among content, pedagogical and technological knowledge, and web‑based community competence.  Environment, social media, blogs, process, people, tools, apps you can see on this slide, which should be flexible and compatible in the scope of cooperation and effective support aimed at online education, learning, teaching, and feedback.  Next slide, please. 

One interesting proposal for an integrated multimodal model of online education is provided based on a pedagogical purpose, Picciano, 2017, which could be of good use in online education in the COVID‑19 pandemic.  This slide shows the updated multimodal model for online education which will be successfully integrated with social media and web‑based communities.  For example, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, research gate services, Office’s apps, Google, Microsoft Teams and other.  However, online tools are only tools.  And should be used for supporting for successful implementation, education where the Internet should fulfill other indicators such as smart and adaptive, teacher well-being, peer relationships and cooperation, digital inequalities, students' motivation, and engagement,  cooperation with parents and mentors,  digital competencies.  (?) 2020.  Next slide, please. 

The review of the recent experience of the University of Silesia in Katowice shows that the formal regulations and the introduction of e‑learning are not enough to keep the social climate at a relevant level.  The selected main directions and activities of effective global e‑learning implementation at the University of Silesia in the pandemic are  strategy and implementation,  immediately introduction and formal regulations concerning technical and organizational matters of the educational process at university in the pandemic.  E‑environment.  Development of corporate standards, creation of personal learning environment of a student and teacher are ways to create an electronic informational educational university environment.  Supporting with distance center learning specialists.  E‑community.  Keeping and increasing  of the mutual contact in the university communities where MS Teams, social media, constant email correspondence, newsletters, and et cetera.  E‑technologies.  Global constant use of the wide spectrum of different useful contemporary applications for effective learning and teaching.  E‑resources.  Providing a lot of digital sources, publications (?) center of the scientific information in Katowice, digital libraries, sharing via electronic sources via university repository, sorry (?).  E‑learning.  Conducting classes in synchronous as well as asynchronous remote mode using Moodle system, Microsoft Teams, social media models and other different Internet tools and services.  Next slide, please. 

As a selected pilot, research results of surveys conducted at the University of Silesia shows that generally the students and teachers did a good job of implementing distance learning during the pandemic.  The main research problem was how did distance learning take place during the COVID‑19 coronavirus pandemic?  An online survey was used according to the 5‑point Likert Scale on the question, do you have online learning conditions in a separate room?  90% of respondents answered yes.  Also, the majority gave positive answers to the questions.  Is there a constant contact with the lecturer?  80%.  Do lecturers motivate students to learn?  75 respondents -- 75% of respondents answered it yes.  Lecturers support students in carrying out tasks?  85% of students answered this question appropriately.  However, only 25% respondents answered positively as their early experience in participation in distance learning was assessed above 50%.  The questions determine to what extent, were you prepared for distance learning?  This preliminary research result show that students quite quickly and successfully adapted to the conditions of distance learning and showed (?) good results in their studies.  Next slide, please. 

And some conclusions.  Based on our and other countries' practices and experiences, we could identify that following several core elements of effective online education in emergency.  Using friendly learning tools.  Providing appropriate interactive digital learning resources.  Advising learners in the use of effective learning methods.  Guiding learners to apply effective learning methods.  Promoting effective methods to organize interaction by adopting a range of teaching strategies.  Providing instant support services to organize instruction by adoption of a range of teaching strategies.  Providing instant support services to organize instruction for teachers and learners.  Improving the partnership between governments, enterprises, and schools and universities. 

Thank you very much for your attention.  Please, questions, comments.  Thank you. 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Thank you very much for your presentation.  And we are waiting for any questions that might be addressed directly to you, if not verbally, then by all means, please use chat where you can pose the questions.  Otherwise we will open the floor to those that would like to ask a question. 

>> I'd like to ask a question.  May I? 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Yes, please.  Yes, please. 

>> Professor Smyrnova‑Trybulska, I would like to ask a question.  What are the new trends in education in relation to the COVID‑19 pandemic?  Thanks. 

>> EUGENIA SMYRNOVA‑TRYBULSKA: Okay.  Thank you.  You asked me about relation between education and COVID with respect to development of a system ‑‑ education system, yes, after pandemic or main trends.  Okay.  I think that during pandemic, 19 ‑‑ COVID‑19, we can see a fast development of different online technologies.  For example, e‑learning.  Faster development of next‑generation of LMS, learning content management system and digital learning environment, next‑generation digital learning environment is creating a transformational shift in how institutional architect is their their learning ecosystem for learners and instructors.  Adaptive learning technologies.  It is very important for prospective trends or changing of education, which taken into account personal abilities of students, pupils, students of universities, seniors and so on and so on.

Artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, a national user interface, blended learning design.  Collaborative learning, analysis of privacy questions, and other.  The main idea is transform the education system and all components, methods, general methodologies, pedagogy, organization, and other contexts for supporting and developing personalization of education, and supporting all activities of the education process is very important, and increase the quality of teaching and learning. 

Social trends in education.  First of all, well‑being and mental health.  It is very important and expert researches should continue conducting research in this area on this topic because the comfortable psychological, emotional, comfortable well‑being is very important for successfully educational courses, teaching, learning, and generally being in function.  Education trends.  For example, changes in a students population, global trends, changing the age of students.  For example, 50% for 20 years, 50% of students will have more than 50 years old.  Alternative pathways of education, different kind of form technologies, learning, online learning, blended learning.  And smart curriculum and adaptive curriculum for taking into account personal, individual predisposition and style of learning and individual needing. 

Adaptive learning.  Analyzing for student success.  Open educational resources.  It is very, very important direction.  Often educational resources, open access, publications, e‑learning courses, different research results.  (?) social media.  University repositorium, scientifical databases and so on and so on and so on.  And all these trends are very effective influence in part to the quality of education and taking into account expectation of students and teachers.  Thank you for your attention. 

>> JANUSZ TANAS: Thank you very much.  Thank you for your explanation.  Thank you for questions that were raised through our presenters.  Unfortunately one of our presenters endured some technical problems, being unable to link with us today.  So I believe that there are no other presenters that we have for this session.  And as such, I would like to thank all of you for your preparation and presentation and questions that you responded to.  I wish you all the best.  And good luck and see you next year in the same presentations perhaps with new data and new information that will inform us all on the progress.  Thank you very much.