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IGF 2018 DC Net Neutrality: Measuring Discriminatory Practices (DCNN)

DC: 

Dynamic Coalition on Network Neutrality

Debate - 90 Min

Description: 

The 2018 session of the IGF Dynamic Coalition on Network Neutrality (DCNN) will explore two themes that were identified as particularly relevant during the RightsCon meeting of the DCNN:
1.      Monitoring of discriminatory practices that may infringe net neutrality
2.      Empirical research on Zero Rating offerings

Several stakeholders have stressed the positive impact that DCNN activities may have in advancing the elaboration of empirical research on discriminatory practices, in light of the success of the Zero Rating Map (available on www.zerorating.info), which was crowdsourced by the DCNN and whose beta version was released at the IGF 2017 DCNN session.

The Zero Rating Map is the the first IGF outcome to have been included in an official report of a national regulator.
The French Telecoms Regulator, ARCEP, has dedicated a section to the Zero Rating Map its 2018 State of the Internet* report.

Panellists will present the research they have conducted and initiatives they have led with the aim to offer concrete elements on which participants can have a constructive multistakeholder debate, analysing the latest evolution of the net neutrality saga.

Panellists will discuss studies and initiatives aimed at monitoring discriminatory practices and net neutrality regulations. Speakers will focus on both methodology and results of such studies, with the aim to inform the public, stimulate debate and offer sound evidence for researchers, policymakers, regulators and other  stakeholders alike.

* The French version of the report is here https://www.arcep.fr/uploads/tx_gspublication/rapport-etat-internet-2018...
The English version is here https://www.arcep.fr/uploads/tx_gspublication/report-state-internet-2018...
All IGF outcomes elaborated by the DCNN over the past years are also freely available here https://www.intgovforum.org/multilingual/content/dynamic-coalition-on-ne...

Organizers: 

Luca Belli, FGV   |  Chris Marsden, Sussex University

Speakers: 
  • Mr Serge Abiteboul, Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes (ARCEP)
  • Mr Frode Sorensen, Norwegian Communications Authority (Nkom)
  • Mr Marc LeBourges, Orange
  • Mr Luca Belli, Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV)
  • Mr Chris Marsden, Sussex University
  • Ms Amba Kak, Mozilla
  • Ms Jordana Viotto, Université Paris-Dauphine
  • Mr Simone Basso, Tor Project

 

The session will be co-chaired by Luca Belli, Fundação Getulio Vargas and Chris Marsden, Sussex University

Rapporteur: Lua Fergus, FGV

Agenda 

 

Introductory remarks by the co-moderators, Luca Belli, FGV Chris Marsden, Sussex University (3 min in total)

 

Keynote remarks by Serge Abiteboul, ARCEP (6 minutes)

 

Panellist interventions: (moderated by Luca)

  • Frode Sorensen, Norwegian Communications Authority (5 min)
  • Chris Marsden, Sussex University (3 min)
  • Simone Basso, Tor Project (5 min) 
  • Marc LeBourges, Orange  (5 min)

 

3 questions from participants 

 

Panellist interventions: (moderated by Chris)

  • Amba Kak, Mozilla (5 min)
  • Jordana Viotto, Université Paris-Dauphine (5 min)
  • Luca Belli, Fundação Getulio Vargas (3 min)  

 

Questions from participants 

 

Concluding remarrks and wrap-up (2 min)

 

Report: 

- Session Type DC

 

- Title:  Net Neutrality: Measuring Discriminatory Practices (DCNN)

 

- Date & Time: Monday, 12 November, 2018 - 12:20 to 13:20

 

- Organizer(s): Organizer 1: Luca Belli, Fundação Getuio Vargas (FGV)

Organizer 2: Chris Marsden Sussex University

 

- Chair/Moderator:  Luca Belli, FGV & Chris Marsden, Sussex University

 

- Rapporteur/Notetaker:  Luã Fergus Oliveira da Cruz, Youth Observatory

 

- List of speakers and their institutional affiliations (Indicate male/female/ transgender male/ transgender female/gender variant/prefer not to answer):

  • Mr Serge Abiteboul, Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes (ARCEP)
  • Mr Frode Sorensen, Norwegian Communications Authority (Nkom)
  • Mr Marc LeBourges, Orange
  • Mr Luca Belli, Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV)
  • Mr Chris Marsden, Sussex University
  • Ms Amba Kak, Mozilla
  • Ms Jordana Viotto, Université Paris-Dauphine
  • Mr Simone Basso, Tor Project

- Theme (as listed here): Digital Inclusion & Accessibility

 

- Subtheme (as listed here):  COMMUNITY NETWORKS

 

- Please state no more than three (3) key messages of the discussion. [150 words or less]

  1. Further research and DCNN activities should be dedicated to the analyses of discriminatory traffic management practices, in order to inform net neutrality policy debates.
  2. Empirical research on Zero Rating can usefully inform Regulators' as well as policymakers' works. The fact that the DCNN Zero Rating Map has been featured into the French Telecoms Regulator (ARCEP) report on the State of the Internet is a positive example in this regard
  3. Methodologies and results of such studies should be open for review, comment and improvement from researchers, policymakers, regulators and other stakeholders alike
     

     Please elaborate on the discussion held, specifically on areas of agreement and divergence. [150 words] Examples: There was broad support for the view that…; Many [or some] indicated that…; Some supported XX, while others noted YY…; No agreement…

     

    Several stakeholders stressed the positive impact that DCNN activities may have in advancing the elaboration of empirical research on discriminatory practices, in light of the success of the Zero Rating Map (available on www.zerorating.info), which was crowdsourced by the DCNN and whose beta version was released at the IGF 2017 DCNN session.

    Panellists presented the research they have conducted and initiatives they have led with the aim to offer concrete elements on which participants can have a constructive multistakeholder debate, analysing the latest evolution of net neutrality

    Participants agreed on the benefits of crowdsourcing measurements.

    It was stressed that the Zero Rating Map is the the first IGF outcome to have been included in an official report of a national regulator. The French Telecoms Regulator, ARCEP, which was represented by a board member has dedicated a section to the Zero Rating Map in its 2018 State of the Internet report.

    The French version of the report is here https://www.arcep.fr/uploads/tx_gspublication/rapport-etat-internet-2018...
    The English version is here https://www.arcep.fr/uploads/tx_gspublication/report-state-internet-2018...

  4.  

    Durig their presentations, the first panelists focused on measures and tools to understand the quality of services offered by internet service providers and applications providers, especially speed and attempts to discriminate traffic. Many presented practical examples, such as the WeHe and OONI applications.

    The European “Net neutrality measurement tool” currently being developed by BEREC provides an example of how a consistent approach to measurement of internet access services to assess net neutrality can be facilitated across countries

    Other panelists presented more theoretical positions pointing to the need for reflection on topics such as innovation and regulation, as well as highlighting the need for more research and more data to discuss the theme of the session.

     

    One of the main concerns regarding a potential departure from net neutrality, explored by one of the panellists, is that it might steer consumers’ choice of online content towards the Content Providers (CPs) included in the zero rating plan. As CPs typically rely on traffic to generate revenues, (either from advertisement or from user payment (e.g., subscription)), zero rating raises barriers to entry to CPs excluded from the plan and might reduce the variety of CPs available to users. It can also interfere with incentives of CPs to invest in quality. In this context the incentives vary with the elasticity of demand for the zero-rated content provider and that effects might be different for distinct types of content. 

     

    Importantly, the private sector representatives highlighted that Internet Service Providers have a strong incentive to provide quality neutral Internet access, because the value of most contents available on internet access, and thus le value of internet access itself, depends of the ability of those contents to exchange together on-line through a neutral network.
     

    - Please describe any policy recommendations or suggestions regarding the way forward/potential next steps. [100 words]

    Measurement of internet access services to assess net neutrality should emphasise openness and standardisation in order to foster a cross-national platform for development and research of a reliable methodology and reusable toolbox.

    Participants agreed on the benefits of crowdsourcing measurements.

    Participants stressed the benefits of the Zero Rating Map as a tool to foster further research and suggested to use more largely crowdsourced tools to verify compliance with network neutrality.

           Development of shared measurement methodologies and tools are needed in order to be able to collect ancompare more empirical data, measuring Internet access quality.

ISP representatives stressed that whether the provision of specialized services improves or degrades internet general quality should be tested by assessing if, for a given set of usages, the quality of internet services would be degraded or improved if the usage served by a specialized service was instead provided on internet: as specialized services uses optimal solutions that minimize resources for a given outcome, their provision can then be expected to improve the overall network efficiency, notably for the benefit of the general open internet quality.

Lastly, it is key to understand how the rules that we choose today will shape the direction of innovation tomorrow.

 

- What ideas surfaced in the discussion with respect to how the IGF ecosystem might make progress on this issue? [75 words]

The work of the Dynamic Coalition on Net Neutrality was praised for its outcome-oriented nature. IGF should focus more on outcome oriented initiatives, as suggested repetedly over the past decade and as also stressed by President Macron's intervention.    Net neutrality continues to pose policy challenges, as there are inconsistent national practices and a lack of an internationally recognized framework to guide the approach this matte.  These fragmented regulatory policies across nations can be disruptive for the Internet as a global network. There is a need for the global community including the IGF to come up with a set of universal values and standards and with that a globally recognized framework that will support the harmonization of these individualistic national approaches

- Please estimate the total number of participants.

 

130

- Please estimate the total number of women and gender-variant individuals present.

 

60

- To what extent did the session discuss gender issues, and if to any extent, what was the discussion? [100 words]

None

- Session outputs and other relevant links (URLs):

https://public.tableau.com/profile/zeroratingcts#!/vizhome/zeroratinginfo/Painel1

Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases

http://www.rfc-editor.org/pdfrfc/rfc7536.txt.pdf

 

Net Neutrality Regulatory Assessment Methodology

https://berec.europa.eu/eng/document_register/subject_matter/berec/regulatory_best_practices/methodologies/7295-berec-net-neutrality-regulatory-assessment-methodology

 

Net Neutrality Measurement Tool Specification

https://berec.europa.eu/eng/document_register/subject_matter/berec/reports/7296-net-neutrality-measurement-tool-specification

Orange analysis on the impact of interactions between contents and applications and the neutrality of networks:

https://www.orange.com/fr/content/download/48545/1388078/version/5/file/2018%2010%2024%20Net%20Neutrality%20Externalities.pdf

 

Position paper analying the impact of ZR on end-users' freedom of choice

https://docreader.readspeaker.com/docreader/?jsmode=1&cid=bresa&lang=fr_fr&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.orange.com%2Ffr%2Fcontent%2Fdownload%2F48222%2F1383799%2Fversion%2F1%2Ffile%2FZero%2520rating%2520and%2520end-users%25E2%2580%2599%2520freedom%2520of%2520choice%2520-%2520An%2520economic%2520analysis%2520%25E2%2580%2593%2520ao%25C3%25BBt%25202018.pdf&referer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.orange.com%2Ffr%2FGroupe%2FPolitique-europeenne%2Fregard-economique%2FFolder%2FOTT-operateurs-Telecom-et-internet-ouvert&v=

Session Time: 
Monday, 12 November, 2018 - 12:20 to 13:20
Room: 
Salle IV

Contact Information

United Nations
Secretariat of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF)

Villa Le Bocage
Palais des Nations,
CH-1211 Geneva 10
Switzerland

igf [at] un [dot] org
+41 (0) 229 173 678