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IGF 2020 - Day 3 - NRI Data utilization for sustainability

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the virtual Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), from 2 to 17 November 2020. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 



>> MODERATOR:  Sorry for the introduction those who listened in the test phase.  Now it's real.  We are starting now this session on data utilization for sustainability.  This is one of the NRI collaborative sessions.  And it has been promoted and built around the contribution of four IGF, national IGF.  The first one is the Benin IGF, with Amessinou Kossi that is with us.  The second is the Spanish IGF with Dr. Felix Hernandez‑Gil that is with us.

The third is the Lebanese IGF with Zeina Bou Harb that is with us.  And the last but not least the Argentina IGF with Olga Cavalli.

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Since 2017 we start health strategy due to health of people.  The Government provides capacity building to start up and some NGOs.  We have in our country some startups follow which the application, one of them is Kea medical.  Kea medical is an application that helps people to know what doctor is where.  You take program with doctor, you go and make, take care of their health.

We are also some application called where you have three specific operations, one operation is detecting pharmacy in your areas, knowing the price of medicine, know what kind of medicine you must have.  You can pay directly.  That application also helps people to plan.  Some women need to be pregnant, they can use one of the, one part of this application.  And it is good to have trainings.  You have also the possibility to contact online doctor, have program for him, and plan that it would be better to come and see specialist if you have some problem or specific disease or the people have the bad health will need to be controlled every time.  They have also one model to help him to control their health every time.

We have also some, another application called Pass Musso, which is something like wash.  With that wash, we have all of your medicine inside.  We can know all of the diseases you have.  At the whole time you have control.  The time you need to make a new (?)

>> MODERATOR:  Kossi, could you repeat the last phrase.  We missed you.  Kossi?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  The person in that wash can visit with the person who have ability.  The doctor who have is controlling the system and who is identified, and can access your health information and help you.

For example, when you have accident in the road, anybody cannot know who you are what kind of action we can make to you urgently.  All of that information you have in your wash can help doctor to give you the fast operation needed to support yourself.  That is ‑‑

>> MODERATOR:  Kossi.  Can I make a question?  Because usually in Africa, one of the big problems is the difference between the capital and the rural areas.


>> MODERATOR:  This kind of problem, I think are more for the rural areas.  Is this was aimed to deal with this specific problem that usually exists in Africa?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Yes.  In the rural area you don't have specialists, for example.  You don't have specialists, and that specialist works with the contacted in the rural area (?) another contact in the rural area, and give them by Internet use, give them a knowledge to how to identify disease and how to help people when we have specific program to resolve in the health concern.

>> MODERATOR:  When you have a specific problem that has been identified for the application, then you have to go to the capital or to the urban areas to make the ‑‑

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Some action can be made in this sense by using Internet from Niki, for example, and other countries.  Using Internet, we can make intervention online directly.  It's not all of the time necessary to make trip to Capital before you have a good specialist to take care of you.

>> MODERATOR:  And this, I guess, is an application on mobiles?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Yes, yes, using the mobile.

>> MODERATOR:  Okay.  Good.

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  It is for mobile.  Yes.  Kea Medicine and Dit Moi Doc have this technique to have all of the specialists in the health centers everywhere in the countries.  We have also possibility to share this technology within other countries in Africa.

>> MODERATOR:  This is a local software development or you are using for this application something that already exists elsewhere?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  It's available in, the application is available in the store now.  It's built for Africa region.

>> MODERATOR:  And it works in French?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Yes, in French.  Kea Medicine, for example, has some model in English you can use also.  It's possible.

>> MODERATOR:  Not in local languages.

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Not yet.  In local language they don't make it.  In local language, how many people would use it?  How much would we pay to use that?  That is a question we don't, what we don't have solution now.

>> MODERATOR:  Yes.  That's important to know, because there are many languages in the region, so, local languages.  Okay.

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Making technology in local language is not the problem.  The problem is how many persons can pay for that.  And when we pay for that, the system will have, will need also interpretation to be in French, to be in English and so on.  Who will pay for that interpretation?  That is also the challenge we can resolve before moving to that option.

>> MODERATOR:  Okay.  So the services, you can also through the application pay the services that you are using?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Yes.  When you use, for example, Dit Moi Doc and it identifies somewhere we can pay medicine.   1%, for example, of the payment can be used for application management.  That is some of the strategy we put outside to let application be available every time.

>> MODERATOR:  Okay.  And this, this application is in all private sector developments or the Government has been pushing, paying, incentivizing for that?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Sometimes Government gives some to all of the startup and when we have a specific application, it's not something like the Government finance directly to make business, but when we are make specific business, we can get them to give submission to let them go up in the business and give them also opportunity to have a new solution designed again, part of the solution are not better used at the time.

Sometimes for last year, for example, when we have our national year of digital, we have some space for the startup who have specific application to come and present their job.  When represented, we have some persons who have money who need and somewhere will put their money to make business, they use that opportunity and contribute also to in the implementation of the startup.

>> MODERATOR:  Good, Kossi, the reason the chat, in the question and answer there is a question is the same that I raise you.  They would like to have the link to the application that you presented or some of these applications?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  I will share the link in chat.  I will share the link to access the two or three applications we have here in E‑health who help us, I will share.

>> MODERATOR:  Perfect.  Because this could be very helpful for people to have an idea of that.  Kossi, there is more to add or we can give the floor to Felix?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  At this time, you can give floor to Felix.

>> MODERATOR:  Then you prepare yourself for second round at the end where we have to close with recommendation.  Thank you very much, Kossi for this presentation.  It is very important and interesting because the access to healthcare in rural areas in Africa has been always very challenging, and it's very good to hear that there is progress on that.

Now, we pass to a completely different situation, Spain has problem with rural areas but not the same kind, and the applications are totally different.  In particular, Felix will present us a very interesting research that has been made in with social media about Sustainable Development Goals.  Can you describe us what is this project and which phase we are?

>> MODERATOR:  Okay.  Thank you very much.  It is a pleasure for me to be here in this session.

Information commune technologies is one of the most relevant information and should have a crucial impact towards the priorities for achieving Sustainable Development goal established by the United Nations.  So at the Spain we have been studying in the last year the impact of the introduction of information and communication technologies on the achievement of these goals using indicators for the adoption of technologies, and also for the achievement of the SDGs.

These goals have support from Facebook in the states.  We have seen, there is a clear relationship between the general advance in the achievement of the SD Gs and the adoption of information and communication technologies.

The adoption of these technologies is associated with important progress towards achievement of this goal.  Some of the goals that are very positive associated with this technologies are poverty reduction, SDG1, good health, SDG3, quality of education, SDG4, or industrialization, SDG9.

We consider that as soon as you introduce, the priority in this goal is very fast.  There is another group of goals including among them the gender equality, SDG5 or the reduction of inequalities which has no correlation with the utilization.  However, studies also show a negative association between the progress in digitalization and the goals for climate and natural environment protection.

While geographical areas with low level of Internet penetration show good progress towards achievement of these goals, they are performing in areas with high digitalization level, this is still poor.  We have seen the devastating effect of the pandemic on the war.  The destruction of the natural environment in particular the climate in our opinion could be the next minor thread for the war.

So we should revert the association between increasing utilization and the deterioration of the environment, especially considering that there are more than 3 million people that do not have Internet connection presently and will adopt this technology in the near future.  To end my intervention, I will add also to give you some information about the use of data to fight the pandemic in Spain.

Here we have been using three kinds of data with their associated tools to fight against the pandemic.  First, we use the localization data from the mobile network and also from application in the mobile in order to measure the mobility of the people and understand the effect of the differing authorities to limit the mobility and reduce the impact of the pandemic.

To carry out these activities, main telecom operator, telephonic, Vodafone, were provided to provide aggregate data on the mobility of all mobile phones in Spain.  A second search of data to fight the pandemic is based on the use of application that are installed in mobile phones.

The application we have in Spain is called radar COVID.  This application can detect if the user is in contact with the people that have been infected by the virus and produce warnings to the user and can help to trace the previous contact if the person is infected.  It is based on Bluetooth and it has been developed with the collaboration of public authorities and major Internet companies like Google and Apple.

This application has been developed not only in Spain, but in more European countries.  This application in Spain has interoperability with similar applications developed within Europe.  There are now around 20 applications in Europe and there is a share to provide data connection among them.

The third social personal data to fight the pandemic is based on land surveys that are intended to collect the useful data to understand the spread of the pandemic and the effects on the people.  It.  These are voluntary surveys, but up until now several hundreds of thousands of people are providing very useful data using this array so that we have seen that they are very interesting.  For the moment, that is my intervention.  Thank you very much for your attention.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you very much, Felix.  That's very useful, and so as you promised, you have the first part more general, and the second was specific on the application for the COVID.  I put in the chat the link to the page of Google with the application rather, and I put also the map for different application of COVID and I see that Kossi has responded from the request to the audience to pry the link for the Benin application.  Perfect.  I think we are on time.  So now I give the floor to the second part of the discussion.

The second part of the discussion is about specific application for COVID, but, of course, this doesn't hamper Zeina or Olga to supplement with other applications that are data‑based and could be useful for sustainable development.  Before that, just one question to you, Felix, to close the first part of your discussion, the research seems still to be ongoing or the final data are available, the research you are making with Facebook about the impact of digitalization of sustainable goals?

>> MODERATOR:  The research is ongoing and we are planning to continue this research during next year, yes.

>> MODERATOR:  So the result, the final result will be in the middle of next year?

>> MODERATOR:  Well, you know, it's a very wide field of investigation it's difficult probably to speak about final results because it's an ongoing investigation.  We have already quite a lot of results.  Of course, I just gave a very general description of the investigation, but we have a lot of very detailed data on many indicators and we have studied very carefully the correlation between both kinds of indicators.

But our plan for next year is to continue the investigation, probably to try to figure out more what could be better, the digitalization part for the countries that now have a low level of digitalization will increase that in the future.

What we have seen is that presently many of the digitalized countries have for indicators, especially related to the environment.  And the goal is to try to find out in the future the best way to digitalize and also to preserve the environment.

>> MODERATOR:  Okay.  That's very interesting.  I think that for the whole IGF and especially for the NRIs, this result is very useful, because you can try to think policies having in mind that sustainable goals, development 1, 2, 3 and 9 can be directly influenced by the digitalization while others could have even an inverse impact or there is a risk that could be an inverse impact.

So I think for policy makers, this information is very, very useful.  Thank you.  Felix, you promised to keep us updated on that through the NRI network.  And now I pass to Zeina if she is ready.  Zeina will present us some interesting initiatives that have been made by the Government through the telecom operator in Lebanon to try to counter the pandemic.  In the country, among all of the other unfortunate things that are happening in Lebanon at the moment.  Zeina, the floor is yours.

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  I am going to brief a little bit about how Lebanon responded to the COVID‑19 through ICTs.  Actually this pandemic imposed on the Lebanese people many challenges.  Among them the next to rely more on the digital tools and on the online content and the infrastructure.

Accordingly, the incumbent operator in Lebanon, OGERO which is the executive arm of the Lebanese Ministry of Telecom so a public institution has to take part of the responsibility.  In fact, it says the motto responding to krona is our responsibility.  So based on the general mobilization decision and to deal with the spread of the virus, OGERO in collaboration with the Lebanese Minister of Communication took a set of measures including doubling the Internet speed for the subscribers with fixed speed without consumption cap, and doubled the volume of consumption for subscribers of a preset consumption volume in order to encourage citizens to stay at home and perform their work remotely and it was the aim of contributing to the success of the Ministry of Education's plan for distance education.  And to enable students to continue their studies online, the Ministry of Telecommunications add 100 gigabytes free of charge to all Internet subscribers operating on the Ministry of Telecom network.

OGERO also launched on social media and awareness campaign calling for the responsible use of the Internet, especially by inviting the subscribers to reduce the number of computers connected simultaneously during the peak hours of the day or also by reducing the quality of the videos they share on social media.

Nothing that OGERO usually keeps a local cache of the main content, but the national group is inundated to the increased traffic.  Some accommodations have been added as major cities need to be linked to Beirut to meet additional demand.

Regarding the Lebanese MAG managed to move the meeting to the virtual space.  A series of five sessions were planned under the general theme Internet Governance in times of crisis.  These sessions covered online teaching and learning, contact tracing and transparency, safer Internet for children during the COVID‑19 crisis, and the free flow of information.

Unfortunately, we were able to only hold the first three sessions.  It the last two were postponed due to the explosion that happened in the Beirut.  It's also good to mention that there was a collaboration between OGERO and the national NGO to establish a COVID response centre to provide the citizens with info related to the virus and the details on the available tests and their result.

As a collaboration by stakeholders that I may mention here is the mobile app that was developed in collaboration between the Ministry of Public health and the American University of Beirut.  It's an application that helps to trace, not really trace is not the exact word, but it's ‑‑ it will show the exposure of the people having this application to people that were tested positive.  So they might know that they were close to these persons through Bluetooth technology by downloading this application so they can be notified to get the test done and the result of their test and everything related to the risk that they encounters when they were close to a person that was tested positive.  This is for now, I think.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you very much.  I think that would be very useful if you could put in the chat the link to some of the applications that you mentioned if they are available, even if in Arabic, there will be somebody that will have a look at it.  Thank you very much.

Now, Olga.  We go to the other side of the world.  You have news for us?  Because you look at Europe and Mediterranean areas it doesn't look promising so everything on Argentina?

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  Not very promising here as well.  I think we are all having this challenging times, but the thing is that we have to persist.  That's the most important thing.  So thank you very much for invitation to this session.  Very interesting work that Kossi and thank you Giacomo for coordinating this session.  What I would like to share with you is the usage of open data through this pandemic, not only for COVID specific infections, but also for other things that the Government has been doing towards supporting the population with some economic help so Argentina is publishing a lot of information as an open data initiative.  The idea is to have a more open and transparent state and so many actions of the Government are published publicly, and people can download all of the information and then use it for research or for knowing what the Government is doing, and all of that.  So what happened with COVID?

That possibility of sharing data, open data has been very, in my opinion, very, very well used, and this is what I want to share with you.  So open data in the context of COVID‑19, so during this pandemic, several data sets, groups of data of this open data have been published to deepen the transparency of key issues such as health, I will go in detail in a moment, emergency assistance for productivity, and emergency family income, among others.

So the team responsible for the open data policy at the national level began working very articulated with other agencies of the Government.  So they could document these databases with state of the art information in fighting the pandemic.  So following this idea of national open data standards and seeking practical and homogenous record, these are the data sets that are documented and online in, related with COVID‑19.

The first one is every day at 8:00 p.m., there is fresh information about how many people is infected in the country, every day at that time with information gathered until 5:30 p.m. the same day.  So this is one of the things that is available online and with very updated information every day.

Another data set is the laboratory test results from every day.  So the government is doing some testing, specifically focused in areas where more infections are expected, and that information is also available in this portal.  Another information is some purchases or donations that the Government has been receiving, and the flights from abroad that have been bringing all of these goods and to Argentina.  And also the purchases that were made with public money, so that can be transparently accessed by the citizens.

Then there are two groups of information which I think are very important.  One is the emergency assistance production.  This is money that the Government has been giving to companies, especially small and medium enterprises or entrepreneurs to pay part of the salaries.  So that information is called ATP, and that set of data is already available online and the other one is what we call the EFI.  Which is Emergency Family Income.  Those are for families that are not owners of a small, medium enterprise, then a family become a special income this has been happening since March.

So all of the different data sets are available online, so the COVID‑19 data case is reported daily, as I said, at 8:00 p.m. local time.  All of the cases and the terminations are generated by the Ministry of Health with a daily update.  Remember that Argentina is a federal country, so we have Ministries of Health in every province, so all of that information is covered by the national Ministry of Health, and also the acquisitions, the donations and this help to the families.  So the democratization of public data is part of a national project for open data, a commitment to make the Government management more transparent, efficient and more responsible.

So the pandemic facilitated access to this data and let the people and also researchers and doctors and hospitals to organize better with this emergency situation that we are living in.  And also I would like to share with you an application that was developed.  It's called with that, which is in Spanish is take care of, which is easy, it's only one word in Spanish.  A verb and the most interesting thing about this application is it was developed as a public‑private initiative.  So many companies, private companies from Argentina, other companies from abroad that are established in the country, the Government, and the health ministry., the ICT contributed very quickly to organize and set up this application.

So I think that is a remarkable issue, because sometimes it's not easy to put all of the people together working.  So that happens.  So this was a very important part of the prevention, public healthcare in the face of COVID‑19 19 so with our application and system.

So the methods and technologies to detect cases early or essential in warranty care and follow‑up as well as to avoid the transmission of the virus.  So thus it enables self‑diagnosis.  It makes some questions so people can know if they are having the virus or not, and after the self‑diagnosis, it provides assistance of what to do, recommendations in the case of the compatibility with Coronavirus, and provides context tools for those cases with health authorities or healthcare.

The application is linked to a broader system that articulates the information that the application collects with the health areas in charge of the emergency care, both at the national and provision Governments.  As I said, it's a federal country.  With that application complements and assists the prevention and care policies of population and provides specific elements and supplies for the health intervention of the different ministries.

It is linked with what is needed to certificate, a certification of circulation.  If you have the app, you can generate that circulation authorization, because there were some days that you were not allowed to go outside, and only for buying goods at the Supermarket, things like that, or if you had an essential work then you could go and work.  It's also voluntary.  You are not mandated to download the application, only if you are coming from abroad, you have to download it and do the check in.  But if you are living here, you are not mandated to download it and, of course, all of the information is collected regarding the local regulations about privacy, and once all of this is over, all of this information will be deleted, but perhaps for anonymous way all of the another is gathered for research purposes.  Thank you for the time.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you Olga.  That is interesting and useful.  I see that behind you have a talisman against the COVID.

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  I have many, India, and then I have from Turkey, and then the other is from Colombia.  I have many things here.

>> MODERATOR:  It works against the COVID?

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  For me at the moment, yes.  Let's see what happens.

>> MODERATOR:  So you have to provide to all of us.  Thank you, Olga.  There is a question in the chat that I think is for all of you.  How did you manage data mixing apps and gender inequality during the data gathering?

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  I will comment since I have the floor.  Thank you.  This is very important comment.  Thank you for that.  I think this pandemic and all of the use of technology showed new gaps, perhaps gaps that we knew that were there, but I think they are more explicit now.  For example, what happened with the schools and with violence against women.  So people are gathered at home, and they cannot get out, so violence against women at least in Latin America is higher.  This is very sad, but it's true.

Also the access to technology showed that there are people that could keep on with working.  I'm one of them, so I do all of my work, and I didn't get infected because I just go out once a week to the Supermarket, which is two blocks away from home, very early, nobody in the street, so that's very easy, but other people has to go out and work.  And also kids are not going to school.  So those kids that have good connectivity at home, that's fantastic, because classes went on online, but those that don't have that, which is a quite important part of the population, maybe 20% of homes have not good connection or very few or no connection, they are lost.

They lost the whole year of education.  And also for women, they have to work and take care of kids, and they have to work at home.  That's also tough, even if they have connectivity.

>> MODERATOR:  And for gender parity, can I ask Felix or Kossi so give their view on that?

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  Hello, you hear me.

>> MODERATOR:  Yes, please, go ahead.

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  COVID‑19 changed our life here also our school we close it, university also.  Jobs online, but small we are moving to new way again, we are moving to new way.  It's possible now to go to school, but we have the mask and to use, we have distance to respect, we have small people in the class now.  It's not big like the many times we teaching.

It is something very difficult for everybody, for children, for students, for parents, also for our discretion.  Because everywhere you have some, you have water to wash your hands everywhere every time.  But in rural areas, for example, we have some people who are not sure that COVID‑19 exists.  They are not sure.  We are free, we don't have mask.  They tell us it is disease for capital.  It is not for village.  We have some paradox like that in our region but globally we are making our best to move on, not stop economy.

It is very difficult for our economy now.  Every enterprise, most of our enterprises have difficulty to pay their salary and so on.  But we thank Government who helps some startups, to big entrepreneurs also, give them a reduction for tax, give them also some money to return back in jobs.  It's special for our time.  I don't know if other countries in Africa make the same thing.  Thank you.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you, Kossi for this.

We are now moving to the close because we, the time is running, so I ask all of the panelists to have in mind one minute recommendation of what they have heard that they think could be included as a suggestion for the final report of the IGF as good things to do in order to improve the use of data for the humanity progress, let's say.

And there is a question also if we can answer to this coming in the chat that is about the use of AI.  Of course, this application, I think that they are elaborated using AI if you can in your minute answer also to this question coming from Luis Marie Bell.  We will start in reverse order, I give the floor first to the last, so Olga, one minute thought and say about use of AI.

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  Well, I'm not aware of this information already gathered is used with any AI application.  I can try to find that information.  I know that some AI tools have been used to gather and to process the information before it's published, but after I don't know.  It may be possible.  What I find remarkable of this use of data and also the application with that is the way that very quickly the private and the public sector work together.

As I said before, this is not usually so frequent.  I don't know if other countries, but sometimes Latin Americanos we like to discuss and talk a lot.  It's difficult to put everyone on the same page and work together.  That application was prepared and developed in a very short time, and available to the public almost immediately that the pandemic started.

So I would say that that was a good experience.  The bad is that we see new gaps rising, and I'm not sure if having all of the information gives us the solution.  At least we have the information, which is good, but I'm not sure that we have all of the solutions at hand at this moment.  And thank you for inviting me.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you Olga, one question to understand, when you say private public partnership, these were between Argentina and companies or also ‑‑

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  With Argentinian companies, foreign companies that work in Argentina that have offices in Argentina also.

>> MODERATOR:  You mean the social media or platform?

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  It was mainly software developing companies, companies that can ‑‑

>> MODERATOR:  Locally based.

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  Locally based and also companies that offer Cloud services from abroad, but purchased with established in Argentina, commercial associations and the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Production.  That was very quick that they developed it very very quick, and the software association also.  So that was, for me, it was a good experience, it was a good example that we can work together and do good things.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you.  So in reverse order, now is Zeina.

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Yes, to conclude, I might say that the situation we have encountered is basically unprecedented, and the data has a huge role to play in providing the optimal solution to respond quickly to the needs of the Lebanese citizens and all over the world.

So an important lesson learned for the Lebanese people is that a situation can arise at any time and it can only be turned into opportunity if they can apply for data and be connected very quickly in order to survive.  So the data providers, the telecom operators, they have to accel in catering to such needs as rapidly as possible.

>> MODERATOR:  So for you, the key is that to use the crisis to progress, to give definitive answer or permanent answer to long‑time existing problems?

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Yes, because many of the issues we were facing can be resolved if we were, if we were all connected online.  And this cannot be done unless the operators, unless the telecom providers are very quick and responding to the connection requests.

>> MODERATOR:  Do you think just to better understand, do you think that this would have been different because you are talking of a national telecom operator.  Do you think it make a difference or it could have been done also for a non‑national operator operating in the country.

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  With a national or non‑national?  Actually it's for all of the operators.

>> MODERATOR:  You mentioned OGERO that is the national telecom?

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Yes, but we have two mobile operator that's can provide data to subscribers.

>> MODERATOR:  And they did?

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Did they?

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Provide the data?


>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Yes, they also provided the 100 gigabytes that I mentioned earlier.

>> MODERATOR:  So they participate.  So this was a collective effort.

>> ZEINA BOU HARB:  Yes, actually the operators in Lebanon or all owned by the Lebanese telecom ministry, so they abide by the requirement of the Government.

>> MODERATOR:  So the line of command was very short.  Okay.  Good to know.  This is important to put in context.  Then now is to Felix.  One minute.

>> MODERATOR:  One minute.  I will be very short.  Our commitment of the Spanish and the Polytechnical University of Madrid was to continue to study the relationship between the adoption of the ICTs and the achievement of the SDGs.  And to try to figure out what could be the best digitalization strategies to progress this goal.  And taking into consideration that climate change is the next big threat to take care of, and we will pay attention to this issue.  That's it.  Thank you.

>> MODERATOR:  So beware of the climate change.  Thank you very much.  You stayed in one minute.  Kossi.

>> AMESSINOU KOSSI:  This is a big opportunity for all.  Data, health data, especially is very critical.  Using AI in the implementation of health data is very critical for people.  Government should control how AI are being used in health sector.  That is very important for us.

Maybe Internet must be available for all.  If Internet is available for all, it will be, it will not be a problem for us to be connectible from home to make job, to have our health good, and make everything.  This disease, COVID‑19, showed us how Government should do for people to let them have information, good information in the best time.

The operators like Microsoft, like Google, like Facebook, can also help our countries.  Their business is data.  They must use our data every time if we are not also ready and to help us to be every time data producer.  It is important for them to help us to get Internet everywhere, especially in rural area in Africa and especially in my country, Benin.  Thank you, everybody, it is pleasure to be here.

>> MODERATOR:  Thank you very much, Kossi so I think you are endorsing the UN Secretariat's strategy when he says that he is looking for a common ethical approach for the ICT and the digital world, and when he says that access for everybody has to be one of the sustainable goals to be inscribed in the list.  So thank you very much to all participants.  I think that there is a lot of interesting food for thought that has been provided.  I thank you, the panelists, and thank you the attendees that were so passionate with us.  And I wish you a nice rest of the IGF.  Have a nice day all of you.  Ciao.

>> OLGA CAVALLI:  Thank you everyone, stay safe.


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United Nations
Secretariat of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF)

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Palais des Nations,
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