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PART C: Appendices

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 APPENDIX 3: SURVEY

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 BPF Gender and Access 2016: Survey analysis

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 In this Appendix, Section 1 consists of the design, methodology and survey analysis, while Section 2 contains the contents of the original survey.

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 SECTION 1: DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 Survey design

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Survey questions were drafted and refined in consultation with the BPF community after discussions on the BPF mailing list and during virtual meetings dedicated to planning the survey and doing pilot testing.

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 The aims of the survey (see Section 2 of this Appendix for the survey questions) were twofold, namely to:

  • 8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0
  • investigate barriers and gather local stories/examples on the prevalence of barriers;
  • map existing initiatives and/or reports of relevance to women’s access to the Internet.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 Because the target audience of the survey was not defined and invitations to complete the survey would be sent to both experts in the field and general Internet users, the survey provided relevant background, context and descriptions where perceived necessary. To encourage broader stakeholder participation, the survey was also kept relatively short, with a combination of close-ended categorical and open-ended questions; the latter providing the opportunity for lengthy, substantive responses.

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 Responses were elicited over a period of two months by calls on the mailing list, social media (including tweets from the IGF’s Twitter account), during participatory sessions at national and regional IGF initiatives’ events, and emailed invitations to various mailing lists (including mailing lists within the Internet governance, academic and broader community).

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 Participants were able to make submissions anonymously and/or using pseudonyms, and were notified that no personal information would be shared with third parties without their explicit consent.

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 Diversity of respondents

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 A total number of 76 responses were collected, with the largest proportion of responses submitted by respondents who identified themselves as part of the civil society stakeholder group (43.4%), followed by academia and research organisations (25%), the technical community (12%), and government stakeholders (10.5%). The smallest number from the intergovernmental organisations (2.6%). It should be noted, however, that the identified stakeholder groups were not necessarily mutually exclusive. Of these stakeholders, 58 respondents also identified their organizations, which varied between civil society organizations, universities, news organizations, regional IGF initiatives, government departments, and intergovernmental organizations, etc.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 The survey attracted responses from a rich diversity of regions, particularly from developing countries. All of the respondents identified their countries. A significant proportion of respondents were from South America (37%), 21% were from Africa, 9% from Europe and Asia respectively, and 16% from Central and North America.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 Within these regions, a substantial number of countries were also represented. From the South America region, for instance, survey responses were received from Brazil, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, and Paraguay. From the Africa region, in turn, responses were received from Ghana, Mauritius, Tanzania, South Africa, Tunisia, Chad, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 Note that this sample is by no means, nor does it purport to be, representative of any population. As the aim of the survey was rather to gather a broad and diverse sample of input, this aspect about the sample was not considered as important.

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 Purpose of analysis

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 The survey analysis was conducted with the goal of gathering stakeholder perceptions, comments and information on existing literature regarding the BPF’s topic. The analysis was done to highlight existing work and to consolidate and identify common concerns and issues pertaining to barriers for further study and for incorporation into the main outcome document where relevant.

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 Due to the number of substantive responses for open-ended questions, many interesting comments and/or quotations were also highlighted for inclusion in the main outcome document. Note that these responses are generally verbatim in the main document, although minor editing was sometimes done to fix minor spelling and grammar errors. The meaning of the content was not, however, altered.

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21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 Understanding participants’ perception of barriers

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 One of the priorities of the BPF’s work for 2016 was to gain a better understanding of the barriers that affect whether women can access and benefit from the Internet.

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 The survey therefore asked participants to what extent they agreed that women and men have equal opportunities to use and benefit from the Internet. Approximately 30% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, 50% disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement, and 20% of respondents neither agreed nor disagreed.

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 A list of barriers (with examples) that may be preventing women from accessing and benefitting from the Internet was furthermore listed by the survey designers. This list was extracted from other literature and based on designers’ perception and experience pertaining to the barriers that might be important in preventing women from accessing and benefitting from the Internet. The list included:

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  • Availability (e.g. women have no broadband access or public internet centres are in spaces where women don’t usually have access to etc.)
  • Affordability (e.g. insufficient income to pay for data, or cannot afford a device etc.)
  • Culture and norms (e.g. boys prioritised for technology use at home, online gender-based violence, restrictions to movement etc.)
  • Capacity and skills (e.g. literacy gap in reading, lacking in skills and confidence to access the internet or explore technology etc.)
  • Availability of relevant content (e.g. language issues, lack of content that speaks to women’s contexts, gender-related content is censored/restricted)
  • Women’s participation in decision-making roles pertaining to the Internet and/or in the technology sector (e.g. when women are not able to pursue careers in science and technology, when their participation in relevant policymaking fora is restricted)
  • Availability of relevant policies (e.g. policies with a gender focus and/or that address women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet)

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27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 Respondents were asked to select the barriers they thought relevant (they could select more than one, and an ‘Other’ option was also provided). The effect of culture and norms as a barrier preventing women from accessing and benefitting from the Internet was most frequently selected by participants (71% of participants selected it as a barrier). Other important barriers were affordability (67%), women’s ability to participate in decision-making roles pertaining to the Internet and technology sector (65.3%), lack of capacity and skills (60%) and the availability of relevant policies (59%). Availability of relevant infrastructure was also important (48% of participants selected it as a barrier); as was the availability of relevant content and applications (41%).

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 The next question, which was answered by 55 responses, was an open-ended question requesting respondents to provide a brief explanation of their response to the preceding question on barriers in order to help the BPF to understand the context of each response better. The question also specifically asked for examples of barriers.

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 To ensure a balanced analysis of the responses to this open-ended question, responses were copied to a Google document and discussed during a virtual meeting of the BPF. All participants were invited to participate by coding the responses with the barrier(s) they though a response related to (if any) (the list of aforementioned barriers was used for this purpose). They were also invited to make a note if they thought a barrier was mentioned that was not in the aforesaid list.

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 While these explanations are described in more detail below (in order of relevance – i.e. the barriers that were highlighted most often are discussed first), two general remarks that were common among responses included, firstly, the need to take due cognisance of how barriers differ from region to region (including different countries, rural versus urban contexts, etc.), and, secondly, to also differentiate between the barriers women of different ages face. Where possible, these two factors pertaining to age and the relevance of region are highlighted in the text below.

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32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 The importance of culture and norms

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 The effects of culture and norms, along with the attitudes that accompany it, as barriers preventing women from accessing and/or benefitting from the Internet was most frequently cited as a barrier by survey participants (71% of participants selected it as a barrier to meaningful access for women).

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 Gender inequality ‘is pervasive at the local, national, international and global levels’ (Carolina Lasen, Council of Europe) – as also illustrated by the number of survey respondents who pointed to ways in which culture and norms, for instance, prioritise men over women in diverse parts of the world. As Thais Stein from Brazil explains, ‘offline’ barriers such as financial dependence and a patriarchal society that often restricts women’s ability to study, work, and participate in public spaces, is echoed online. Many of the respondents also explained that culture and norms is an underlying barrier that tend to impact other barriers. As Júlia Ribeiro from Brazil, for instance, notes, sexism and misogyny (addressed as part of threats as a barrier, below) is present in ‘present in every “corner” of the Internet, like online forums, social media pages, etc.’

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 Survey respondents from Africa were particularly vocal in the open-ended survey question on barriers about the importance of culture and norms. Brahim Mahamat Zina from Chad, for instance, points out that culture and norms constitute ‘big barriers’ in Chad and the rest of Africa. Yolanda Mlonzi from South Africa notes that gender roles still constitute one of the primary reasons for the ‘gender digital divide’, because:

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 …many females are subjected to the social construct of what a female should do, how they should act and carry themselves. Many a times, one would find that cellphones, computers and the internet at home are primarily used by men.

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 Sylvia Musalagani from Kenya also argues that culture and norms is also a significant barrier in Kenya and the East African region in general, often causing a chilling effect where women’s ability to express themselves online is concerned:

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 Women are expected to act, dress, communicate in a certain way which is often determined by society, religion, culture among other things. This has caused a lot of women to sensor their expression online to the extent that some prefer not to get online at all.

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40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 As Helani Galpaya from LIRNEasia (India) points out in her survey response, research that LIRNEasia did with the GSMA in Myanmar shows that women are 29% less likely to own a smartphone than men in Myanmar due to a combination of reasons, including traditional gender roles. Such roles encourage men to leave the home to earn money for the family, while women are expected to stay home and run
the household and take care of the family. As the report points out (2015:3):

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 Men have a more prominent role in the household based on the religious belief that only men can become a Buddha, but many of the women interviewed in the qualitative research took this for granted and did not consider it ‘discrimination’.

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43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 One anonymous respondent from France notes that while barriers pertaining to cost and literacy are important, a ‘deeper issue’ persists in that women and girls also need to be empowered to meaningfully participate in technology, including by developing and creating content and applications. Júlia Ribeiro from Brazil similarly notes that while other barriers to access, like affordability and skills, may perceivably be overcome, a more profound barrier is an underlying one related to what she calls a ‘lack of digital culture, along with socioeconomic role we impose to people that fit in social standards’. This, she argues, causes women to believe ‘this digital world doesn’t belong to them’.

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 Many respondents argue that technology is still perceived ‘a male thing’ that is unsuitable for women (e.g. Francesca Arrocha, Panamá; Shreedeep Rayamaji, Nepal; Rebecca Ryakitimbo, Tanzania; Patience, Democratic Republic of Congo). As Sylvia Musalagani from Kenya points out, where women do manage to break through barriers and use the Internet, they ‘have to fight a lot of battles’ because of perceptions that science and technology ‘is not womanly enough’. Denise Viola from Brazil similarly points out that women are discouraged from learning technological skills ‘not because they are not capable’, but because such skills are ‘very much associated with the male universe’.

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 Various survey respondents also note the ways in which underlying cultural norms – particularly relating to women’s (often unpaid) responsibilities at home and raise children – impact their ability to access and benefit from Internet access. Ingrid Brudvig from the World Wide Web Foundation notes that women also tend to spend a ‘disproportionate amount of time on unpaid care activities compared to men’ and that ‘the decision to spend time online presents a real opportunity cost’ (affected by barriers related to relevance, addressed below). Khouloud Baghouri from Tunisia for instance points out that most people in the Tunisian community still believe that when women have Internet access, they will neglect their household chores ‘or her daily mother/daughter activities’.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 Ingrained gender stereotypes often mean that women tend to have less access to education, lower literacy levels, and, as result, are less capable of gaining gainful employment and/or expendable income (e.g. Angélica Contreras, Mexico; Jacqueline Treiber, USA; Júlia Ribeiro, Brazil; Marta García Terán, Nicaragua). Some respondents also note that young women sometimes have to leave school to take care of their children (Sofia Hammoe, Argentina; Júlia Ribeiro, Brazil).

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 Some respondents noted that such gender stereotypes may impact older women more significantly (Denise Viola, Brazil). One respondent from France, for instance, notes that she has noticed ‘the gap in the generation before’ her. Her father is more proficient online, while her mother, who was a stay-at-home mother, took much longer to use the Internet and ‘she’s still not familiar with it’. Another respondent from Brazil also notes:

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 My mother does not usually access internet because she has no confidence to access the internet, nor to explore technologies. She is always afraid of make something wrong using technologies and expose our family. She doesn’t have a notebook, nor a computer, so she has to wait my father stop using his notebook and expect that my brother does not want to use his computer, because the main task to her is to take care of our house.

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50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 Affordability

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52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 Affordability, which relates to not only the cost of devices and data but also whether or not someone has disposable income and financial resources to spend getting connected, was also noted as a significant barrier by 67% of the survey respondents.

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 Women often have fewer employment opportunities, lower incomes and less access to financial resources than men, making it more difficult for them to acquire devices with which to access the Internet, to afford data packages or to pay for public access (c.f. Thai Stein, Brazil; Andressa Pasqualini, Brazil). Costs also tend to affect female-headed, single-parent households more profoundly (Ingrid Brudvig, South Afria).

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 Various survey respondents confirm that costs related to getting online, including for a device, data plan and electricity, are prohibitive for many (e.g. survey respondents from Indonesia, Nepal, Uganda, Ghana). As Inimfon Etuk from She Forum Africa (Nigeria) notes in her survey response:

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 Where there is internet availability, affordability becomes a hindrance largely because women earn less and or have reduced access to employment opportunities which would otherwise have empowered them financially to be able to afford. Where they can afford, they still have to prioritize over more pressing sustainability needs like food and shelter especially for their children.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 High costs are not just preventing women from accessing the Internet, however, but also limiting their future capacity for development. As the World Wide Web Foundation’s Ingrid Brudvig notes in her survey response, ‘high cost is keeping women offline and limiting digital opportunities’. She refers to research done the Web Foundation’s Women’s Rights Online research (2015) and notes:

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 Making broadband cheaper is not only the best way to get more women connected, but also a prerequisite to enable them to go online and explore longer and more frequently, to fully unlock digital opportunities. Women who are able to go online daily are nearly three times more likely than infrequent users to report that the Internet has helped them to increase their income.

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59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 A large proportion (65.3%)of survey respondents also felt that women’s ability to participate in decision-making roles pertaining to the Internet and technology sector is a significant barrier.

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 Cultural barriers and norms, including related socioeconomic factors and perceptions about women’s place and role in society (discussed in x above), also prevent women from meaningfully participating in the ICT sector. As Paula Perez from Argentina notes, ‘being a woman in the telecom area is quite difficult’ even for women who do have the requisite technical skills.

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 Rebecca Ryakitimbo from Tanzania notes that when women do manage to participate in science, technology, engineering and mathematics-related (STEM) fields, they ‘are not given that much responsibility’ as cultural norms still lead to a perception that STEM is ‘a man’s world’.

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 An anonymous survey respondent from Paloma explains that ‘Internet and SMEs have always been conceived as male-dominant fields’, while women are encouraged to focus on ‘more feminine things’. As a result, the respondent points out, women lack Internet-related skills, fail to gain careers in SMEs, there are fewer female engineers, and less women capable of engaging in decision-making pertaining to the Internet.

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 Gender disparities pertaining to women’s ability to participate in decision-making roles not only affect developing countries. Jennifer Chung from DotAsia Organisation, for instance, notes in her survey response that while the USA is a leading country ‘one of the leading technologically advanced countries’, more can be done to enhance gender parity; especially in the technology sector. Another respondent from the Dominican Repubic, Marianny Torres, similarly points out that most of the organizations that take decisions relevant to the Internet and its governance are furthermore managed by men.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0  One anonymous survey respondent also notes that a deeper challenge pertaining to access is how to actually ensure that women and girls can work in technology to develop and create technology themselves.

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66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 Ability to participate as decision-makers 

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 A large proportion (65.3%)of survey respondents also felt that women’s ability to participate in decision-making roles pertaining to the Internet and technology sector is a significant barrier.

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 Cultural barriers and norms, including related socioeconomic factors and perceptions about women’s place and role in society (discussed in x above), also prevent women from meaningfully participating in the ICT sector. As Paula Perez from Argentina notes, ‘being a woman in the telecom area is quite difficult’ even for women who do have the requisite technical skills.

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 Rebecca Ryakitimbo from Tanzania notes that when women do manage to participate in science, technology, engineering and mathematics-related (STEM) fields, they ‘are not given that much responsibility’ as cultural norms still lead to a perception that STEM is ‘a man’s world’.

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 An anonymous survey respondent from Paloma explains that ‘Internet and SMEs have always been conceived as male-dominant fields’, while women are encouraged to focus on ‘more feminine things’. As a result, the respondent points out, women lack Internet-related skills, fail to gain careers in SMEs, there are fewer female engineers, and less women capable of engaging in decision-making pertaining to the Internet.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 Gender disparities pertaining to women’s ability to participate in decision-making roles not only affect developing countries. Jennifer Chung from DotAsia Organisation, for instance, notes in her survey response that while the USA is a leading country ‘one of the leading technologically advanced countries’, more can be done to enhance gender parity; especially in the technology sector. Another respondent from the Dominican Repubic, Marianny Torres, similarly points out that most of the organizations that take decisions relevant to the Internet and its governance are furthermore managed by men. 

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 One anonymous survey respondent also notes that a deeper challenge pertaining to access is how to actually ensure that women and girls can work in technology to develop and create technology themselves.

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74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 Capacity & skills

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 60% of survey respondents noted that a lack of capacity and relevant skills is a barrier to women’s Internet access. In responses to the open-ended question about barriers, various participants point out that this lack of capacity and skills extends from inequalities in respect of women’s access to education and basic literacy skills, to whether they have the skills and confidence to use even basic technologies, to the extent to which women have the skills to participate in the technology sector and in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers.

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 Women often have fewer educational opportunities and lower literacy levels compared to men (c.f. Yolanda Mlonzi, South Africa; anonymous respondent, Guatemala; Sellina Khumbo Kapondera, Malawi). As Jacqueline Treiber from the USA notes in her survey response, ‘there is a systemic barrier to women’s education in certain regions in the world.’ Inimfon Etuk from Nigeria similarly points out that ‘low rates of enrollment into formal education reduces opportunities for women to access training and skills that would build and grow their interest and usage of the internet’.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 Other studies also suggest that women with low literacy levels and educational disadvantages often lack, or believe they lack, the digital skills and confidence needed to use the Internet or other technologies. As Erica Penfold and Dhanaraj Thakur from the Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) points out with reference to Web Foundation and GSMA research, affordability (addressed above) and a lack of know-how or technical literacy are two major barriers to meaningful access. Survey respondents similarly lament low levels of ICT skills in countries like Kenya, Tunisa and Myanmar, for instance (c.f. Anissa Bhar, Tunisia; anonymous respondent, Kenya; Helani Galpaya, India). A lack of digital literacy also extends to women having the confidence to know how to participate online without exposing themselves or their families to harm or risks. As a respondent from the State of Palestine notes,

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 When parents lack the technical skills, they are afraid of their kids to be exposed to pornography, hence they don’t provide access to the internet on their own homes.

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80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 Gender inequalities in access to education in general and in digital literacy skills more specifically also reflect in women’s ability or willingness to participate in STEM and other ICT-related careers (c.f. anonymous respondent, Democratic Republic of Congo; Katambi Joan, Uganda). For many, such sectors are ‘still very much associated with the male universe’ (Denise Viola, Brazil). As Francesca Arrocha from Panamá explains: 

81 Leave a comment on paragraph 81 0 As I grew up, I had this idea that being techie was a guys thing, so now I’m not sure if not being interested enough on classes as physics or chemistry was an election or a cultural imposition.

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83 Leave a comment on paragraph 83 0 The availability of relevant policies (e.g. policies with a gender focus and/or that address women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet), was noted as a barrier to access for women by 59% of the survey respondents. As Renata Aquino Ribeiro from Brazil notes in her response:

84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0 The local government in my country has no public policies geared towards women inclusion. In fact, it firstly released an all-male ministry and ended local police stations specialized in women’s issues. The lack of public policies for women impacts the gender digital divide as it sets a standard upon which to follow.

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86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 Besides explicit policies aimed at enabling women’s inclusion, many policies are furthermore outdated and/or lacks a gender-perspective (Denise Viola, Brazil). Where online abuse and gender-based violence is concerned, for instance, definitions of harm in many countries still do not extend to harm caused by online abuse or violence (c.f. BPF Online Abuse and Gender-Based Violence, 2015). An anonymous respondent from Brazil, for instance, notes that policies that help to capacitate women on defending themselves from online abuse and violence are still necessary. Sylvia Musalagani from Kenya for instance also notes that in Kenya and East Africa in general,

87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 Policies in the region to not favour gender inclusion on the internet, they do not address barriers faced by women in gaining access to the internet and how they to take advantage of this resource for empowerment.

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89 Leave a comment on paragraph 89 0 The availability of infrastructure

90 Leave a comment on paragraph 90 0 Both women and men’s access to the Internet or broadband services is limited by poor network coverage, especially in rural areas in developing countries. For women, a lack of connectivity may be further compounded by other barriers addressed later in this section, like the availability of safe public access facilities (addressed in xx), the affordability of data plans and devices, or whether cultural perceptions. Other challenges that impact access include potential difficulties women may face in obtaining identity documents needed to purchase data or devices; and the availability of reliable electricity needed to charge devices.

91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 In the BPF’s survey, 48% of respondents noted that the availability of relevant infrastructure is a barrier to women’s meaningful access. Various survey respondents noted the importance of urban or rural contexts to the availability of relevant infrastructure. Anissa Bhar, for instance, points out that in Tunisia, women in cities have ‘equal opportunities to use and access’ the Internet, whilst in rural areas access is more limited. Nikole Yanez from Costa Rica also notes that women in rural areas, like indigenous women, find access difficult and expensive. Shreedeep Rayamajhi points out that in Nepal, where the infrastructure for broadband access is available, the quality is often ‘very bad’ and ‘prices very expensive’.

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93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 The availability of relevant content and applications 

94 Leave a comment on paragraph 94 0 Compared to the other barriers, fewer survey respondents (41%) recognised the availability of relevant content and applications as an important barrier to women’s access.

95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 Content, applications and products are rarely designed with women’s needs and preferences in mind – also because there are fewer women working in technology fields (addressed above). Respondents also point out that where content is available, it often tends to reinforce existing gender stereotypes. One respondent from Brazil notes that content that portray and encourage women’s empowerment is limited, while ‘the majority of content directed towards women is regarding maternity, cooking and beauty issues’. A respondent from Indonesia similarly notes that while there may be online content in Indonesian, content still displays a ‘gender bias’ and and serves to ‘perpetuate’ gender stereotypes and gender-based violence, as displayed in ‘articles about virginity test for female students, under-age marriage, etc.’ 

96 Leave a comment on paragraph 96 0 Many women similarly remain unaware of the value which online content and services could contribute to their lives and livelihoods; and are therefore often uninterested in getting online (Paola Perez, Venezuela; Daniela Viteri, Equador). Ingrid Brudvig from the World Wide Web Foundation points out in her survey response that Women’s Rights Online research show that perceived relevance is a significant barrier that is also linked to women’s time restraints, particularly in respect of (unpaid) care activities. She argues:

97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0 the decision to spend time online presents a real opportunity cost, and is therefore directly affected by the value people see in Internet services and applications.

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99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0 Survey respondents confirm that many women do not perceive the Internet to be relevant to them. As Katambi Joan from Uganda notes, ‘women in Africa especially Uganda and in rural areas need a lot of sensitization about the benefits of internet and how it can enhance development.’ Other respondents also note that particularly women in rural areas (Louise Marie Hurel, Brazil) and/ or in the informal sector (Júlia Ribeiro, Brazil) do not know how access can benefit them. As Madhvi Gokool from Mauritius points out,

100 Leave a comment on paragraph 100 0 Women are not exposed to the benefits of the Internet in their everyday life – be it to manage their household or business.

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102 Leave a comment on paragraph 102 0 Threats (online and related to ICT use) as a barrier

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104 Leave a comment on paragraph 104 0 While threats enabled by ICT use and threats pertaining to online abuse and violence was not listed in the survey as a barrier, many survey respondents highlighted it as a barrier in the open-ended question pertaining to barriers.

105 Leave a comment on paragraph 105 0 Survey respondents pointed out that safety and harassment fears, including fears of physical violence, harassment, abuse and/or fraud, are significant barriers that inhibit women from benefitting from or even wanting to access the internet. 

106 Leave a comment on paragraph 106 0 These risks are not just experienced in physical environments but also deters women’s use of online platforms. Jacquieline Treiber (USA) notes that the Internet is ‘not always a safe space for women to learn or exercise free-thought without the threat of harassment’. Júlia Ribeiro from Brazil notes in her survey response that there is sexism and misogyny in every ‘corner’ of the Internet; reinforcing cultural and normative barriers that tend to censor female expression.

107 Leave a comment on paragraph 107 0 Angélica Contreras from México furthermore notes that digital violence is still not adequately addressed in policies and measures, while an anonymous respondent from Brazil similarly notes that there are few platforms that are empowering to women without inviting ‘trolls and critique’, and that relevant policies that can help women to ‘defend themselves from general hate speech, body-shaming attitudes and online violence against women are still necessary’.

108 Leave a comment on paragraph 108 0 Survey respondents furthermore point out that women in rural areas may find the Internet especially difficult to access, particularly in areas where access is only available outside the home or in unsafe locations, and /or where social or cultural norms and safety concerns (addressed above) may restrict women’s freedom of movement. Ingrid Brudvig notes that the Web Foundation’s Women’s Rights Online research (2015) found that cultural norms and online safety and privacy are ‘intricately linked’:

109 Leave a comment on paragraph 109 0 Owning a smartphone or having access to safe, “respectable” public access facilities may be critical enablers for women in situations where their mobility is culturally constrained. 

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111 Leave a comment on paragraph 111 0 Examples of existing initiatives aimed at addressing the gender digital divide

112 Leave a comment on paragraph 112 0 In one of the first meetings the BPF held, it was noted that there is a need to map existing initiatives aimed at addressing women’s ability to meaningfully access the Internet at not just a global level, but also at local, national and regional levels.

113 Leave a comment on paragraph 113 0 For this reason, the survey asked respondents to list examples of existing initiatives by requesting a short description of the initiative as well as details pertaining to:

  • 114 Leave a comment on paragraph 114 0
  • the name of the initiative,
  • the responsible person(s) or organization,
  • when the initiative was launched,
  • where more information pertaining to the initiative can be found,
  • what country or region the initiative is focused on,
  • whether the initiative is national, regional or global in its operation,
  • to what extent the initiative reflects a gender dimension (i.e. whether the initiative is gender-blind (no mention of gender), gender-focused (it contains a strong focus on gender), or contains a partial dimension of gender (i.e. gender is not the main theme, but it is mentioned)).

115 Leave a comment on paragraph 115 0 Provision was also made for contributors to make more than one submission. The initiatives listed are:

Contributor Initiative/ date Responsible Launch/ focus Focus Description URL
Renata Aquino Ribeiro (civil society), Duna Consultoria Governança da Internet e Gênero/ May 2016 Renata Aquino Ribeiro Brazil/ regional Gender-focused (main focus on gender) This is an experiment on using webinars, mobile messaging and onsite events to gather inputs on gender digital divide and hopefully it will gather more regional perspectives. … This mobile messaging group was created to support an activity on gender digital divide in IGF Brazil and fostered debate among participants. Currently, a report is being produced on the summary of the meeting and expansion of those activites are being planned. Intgovforum.org – BPF Gender and Access – Telegram group in portuguese

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Júlia Ribeiro (civil society), Universide Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS APC/ 1990 Claudio Ruiz Global Partial gender dimension (some focus on gender) From their website: “APC helps people get access to the internet where there is none or it is unaffordable, we help grassroots groups use the technology to develop their communities and further their rights, and we work to make sure that government policies related to information and communication serve the best interests of the general population, especially people living in developing countries. In all of our work we encourage people to network as a means of making other activities more sustainable. If people share their experiences and skills they have greater value over a longer period and often create a ripple effect.”

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https://www.apc.org/

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Francesca Arrocha (civil society) Epic Queen/ 2014 Epic Queen Mexico and LatAm/ regional Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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They seek to grow the leadership of more women and girls in technology, science and entrepreneurship. See Facebook: Epic Queen
Angélica Contreras (civil society), Youth Observatory 1) Alerta Machitroll / 2015

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123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0 2) Claudia Calvin

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América Latina/ regional

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Gender-focused 1) detectar a los machitroll, estrategias para defender

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130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 2) México pero estan en toda américa latina

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1) en las redes sociales

134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 0 https://actua.karisma.org.co/alertamachitroll/

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137 Leave a comment on paragraph 137 0 http://mujeresconstruyendo1.blogspot.mx/

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Ingrid Brudvig (civil society), World Wide Web Foundation Women’s Rights Online/ 2014 Global South – Africa, Asia, Latin America Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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Women and girls are being excluded online. Our latest research shows that poor urban women in the developing world are nearly 50% less likely to access the Web. Determined to tackle this challenge head on, our Women’s Rights Online initiative aims to drive women’s empowerment through the Web. Using a blend of fresh research, policy advocacy and storytelling, we want to see evidence-based national ICT and gender plans established in at least seven new countries within five years. More about Women’s Rights Online country partners can be found here: http://webfoundation.org/2015/10/womens-rights-online-does-the-web-reduce-or-magnify-offline-inequalities/

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http://webfoundation.org/our-work/projects/womens-rights-online/

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Lucas Moura (technical community), Anur Women @ ICT

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Global Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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Nathalia (technical community), NIC.br 1) Technovation Challenge/ 2009

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149 Leave a comment on paragraph 149 0 2) Wo Makers Code

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154 Leave a comment on paragraph 154 0 3)MariaLab Hackerspace

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162 Leave a comment on paragraph 162 0 4) PrograMaria

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Global Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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1) Technovation is a program of Iridescent, that helps scientists, engineers and technology professionals to share their passion with girls from underrepresented groups. We believe that girls who are encouraged to be curious, daring, and driven stand the best chance at success in life.

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168 Leave a comment on paragraph 168 0 2) WoMakersCode is a project aimed at inclusion of women in technology in areas such as robotics, development and software quality .

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170 Leave a comment on paragraph 170 0 3) MariaLab is a collective that grew out of an idea: the vast majority of hackerspaces and makerspaces in Brazil and the world, although they are receptive to women not only have a majority of male regulars like, because of that, end up leaving aside some characteristics and needs shared by most women in the STEM area. We feel the need to have a space created by women , which are not minority. The idea is to cover all types of design on the technology … made by women !

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173 Leave a comment on paragraph 173 0 4) PrograMaria wants to empower girls and women , showing that they are able to realize their own ideas using technology.

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176 Leave a comment on paragraph 176 0 Minas Programam wants to empower girls and women, showing that they are able to realize their own ideas through programming.

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178 Leave a comment on paragraph 178 0 Other:

179 Leave a comment on paragraph 179 0 Mulheres na Computação: https://www.facebook.com/mulheres.computacao/
Mulheres na Tecnologia: https://www.facebook.com/MulheresTI/
Women Techmakers SP: https://www.facebook.com/wtmsaopaulo/
Lady Talks: https://www.facebook.com/ladytalkstechnology/
InspirAda na Computação: https://www.facebook.com/InspiradaNaComputacao/
RodAda Hacker: https://www.facebook.com/RodAdaHacker/
Women Makers: https://www.facebook.com/WomenMakers/
Girls in Tech – Brazil: https://www.facebook.com/GiTSaoPaulo/

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1)

181 Leave a comment on paragraph 181 0 http://www.technovationchallenge.org/

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187 Leave a comment on paragraph 187 0 http://www.womakerscode.org/

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190 Leave a comment on paragraph 190 0 http://marialab.org/

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202 Leave a comment on paragraph 202 0 https://www.programaria.org

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206 Leave a comment on paragraph 206 0 http://minasprogramam.com/

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Alyne Andrade de O. Bezerra (civil society), IBDI The misuse of Internet/ 2014 Brazil/ Regional Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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www.ibdi.org.br

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Maryanne (civil society), The Global South Compact & Foundation Rural-Girls-in-Tech/ 2016

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215 Leave a comment on paragraph 215 0 SKIRTS Foundation.

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Kenya-Nyandarua County/ National

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Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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Empowering rural girls and women to take up ICTs for development and mentoring school girls to take up STEM.Advocacy on fast,affordable,secure and transparent Internet. Website under construction

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Carolina Lasen (IGO), Council of Europe there are many reported in the advisory opinion on gender equality and the digital society in Europe: opportunities and risks (Advisory Commitee on Equal Opportunities betwen Women and Men, 2015)

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http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/opinions_advisory_committee/151126_final_digital_opinion_en.pdf

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Marta García Terán

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1) Enredadas: Tecnología para la Igualdad/ 2013

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225 Leave a comment on paragraph 225 0 2) Sursiendo

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233 Leave a comment on paragraph 233 0 3) Mujeres construyendo

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239 Leave a comment on paragraph 239 0 4) Dominemos la Tecnología / Take back the tech

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Nicaragua/ National Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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1) Enredadas is a feminist initiative in Managua, Nicaragua. The objective is more women use Internet as an every days tool by talking and reflecting on security, privacity, governance, women´s history, tecnical skills related to ICT with gender based approach.

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243 Leave a comment on paragraph 243 0 2) Sursiendo is an initiative that contributes to social change and the defense of the commons, through a fair and creative participation, including a gender perspective, relying on popular education and communication by building spaces for reflection, study and analysis to produce emancipatory content that encourage social intervention.

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245 Leave a comment on paragraph 245 0 3) Mujeres Construyendo is the most important bloggers community that exists on the Internet. Over 30 thousand people in the digital ecosystem from Latin America and the Spanish spoken countries. All the content is generated by women who write about the most varied range of topics.

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247 Leave a comment on paragraph 247 0 4) Take Back the Tech! is a collaborative campaign to reclaim information and communication technology (ICT) to end violence against women (VAW).
The campaign calls on all ICT users – especially women and girls – to take control of technology and strategically use any ICT platform at hand (mobile phones, instant messengers, blogs, websites, digital cameras, email, podcasts and more) for activism against gender-based violence. It was initiated by the Association for Progressive Communications’ Women’s Rights Programme (APC WRP)

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1)

250 Leave a comment on paragraph 250 0 http://enredadasnicaragua.blogspot.com/

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255 Leave a comment on paragraph 255 0 http://sursiendo.com/

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262 Leave a comment on paragraph 262 0 3) http://mujeresconstruyendo.com/

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268 Leave a comment on paragraph 268 0 https://www.takebackthetech.net/es

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Shreedeep Rayamajhi (civil society), Ray Z New Alliance against WOMEN TRAFFICKING & vaw/ 2012 Nepal/ National Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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The initiative was launched for the following

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272 Leave a comment on paragraph 272 0 1. Awareness about women trafficking an VAW  through social media

273 Leave a comment on paragraph 273 0 2. To provide legal aid for free to women in need

274 Leave a comment on paragraph 274 0 3. Creating a platform for sharing information

275 Leave a comment on paragraph 275 0 4. To  conduct research and survey

276 Leave a comment on paragraph 276 0 5. To create communication channel

277 Leave a comment on paragraph 277 0 6. To identify commonality and indicators of young generation

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https://m.facebook.com/groups/292558370792222?ref=bookmarks

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Niken (civil society), FAMM Indonesia telecenter project in women’s cooperative/ 2007

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East Java province, Indonesia/ National

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Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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It’s called “Improving Rural Connectivity For Sustainable Livelihoods Project”. Telecenter is designed as a place for rural population, especially women to access information, communicate and obtain information, social services, and economic fields. It’s also a community center to hold trainings and capacity buildings.

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https://puskowanjatitelecenter.wordpress.com/, https://web.facebook.com/mctpuskowanjati/posts/127671770681785?_rdr

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Sylvia Cadena (technical community), APNIC
1) Women into Information Technology (WIT)/ 1980s

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287 Leave a comment on paragraph 287 0 2)Woment into Science and Engineering web site

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295 Leave a comment on paragraph 295 0 2) Woment into Science and Engineering

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UK and global Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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Sends role models and mentors into schools and follows this through into the workplace

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On the Internet

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Anonymous 1) Web We Want

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302 Leave a comment on paragraph 302 0 2) Intel She Will Connect

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1) Focused on content that will bring women on line. Needs more focus and funding

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305 Leave a comment on paragraph 305 0 2) potentially very high-impact, as it’s working in countries, directly with policy influencers.

306 Leave a comment on paragraph 306 0 digital literacy, peer training, relevant content

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Patience (civil society), SJS violence et TIC/ 2010

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DRC/ national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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we run the ICT and violence project in 2010, the key of the project was to inform women an young girls about violence by ICT but it’s was also the way to encourage women to use ICT in their life and technology is not only men matter. so we met women in different organizations and young girls in school and university.

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www.mwasi.com

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Katharina Jens (civil society) Girl Effect/ 2014 Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Online/ global

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Global By giving girls access to the technology as well as connecting them to a network of other girls and female role models, Girl Effect is helping girls to empower themselves by redefining their own capabilities and worth. The aim is to help girls create a new norm for themselves and to break the circle of poverty.

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http://www.girleffect.org/our-purpose/

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Sylvia Musalagani, Hivos

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ending Technology Assisted Violence Against Woment (eTAVAW)/ 2014

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Kenya with possible rollout in Tanzania and Uganda/ national

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national The intervention seeks to support a multi-sectoral approach (health care workers, police, judiciary, women’s rights advocates, victim groups etc) to deal with the issue of technology assisted violence against women. The intervention would work to equip the people on the frontline that are working to combat this with the tools and enabling policy environment to combat this growing threat. It seeks to augment Kenya’s efforts as per national and international commitments.

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contact [email protected]

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Haydee Svab (civil society), PoliGNU / PoliGen / THacker

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1) Barco Hacker/ 2014

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323 Leave a comment on paragraph 323 0 2) PoliGen

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341 Leave a comment on paragraph 341 0 3) MariaLab Hacker Space

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Brazil – Amazonic region/ national

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Partial gender dimension (some focus on gender)

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1) It is a citizenship project focused on technology and internet/information access to Amazonia region. Barco Hacker project is leaded by a woman entrepreneur in technology who has been role model for many women and girls in the region.

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348 Leave a comment on paragraph 348 0 2) They often do workshops about security and privacy on the Internet.

349 Leave a comment on paragraph 349 0 They promote digital literacy workshops focused on women,through activities that go beyond the university walls.

350 Leave a comment on paragraph 350 0 The group is very diverse, composed of undergraduate and graduate students, teachers and non-teaching staff of the University of São Paulo. Most of the group members have some relation to the areas of so-called hard sciences, but there is no restriction on participation because it is understood that diversity stimulates equity and innovation. The group that includes men and women and is open to any interested (as) to act, discuss and/or research gender issues, such as feminism, science, technology, etc.

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352 Leave a comment on paragraph 352 0 3) The MariaLab is a feminist hackerspace, a collective and open space dedicated to the creation and exchange of knowledge.

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http://www.barcohacker.com.br/

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365 Leave a comment on paragraph 365 0 http://marialab.org/

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Katambi Joan (Academia), Uganda Institute of Information and Communications Technology National Backbone Infrastructure Project (NBI/ EGI)/ 2006 Uganda/ national Gender-blind (no mention of gender)

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The Government of Uganda, through the National Information Technology Authority – Uganda (NITA-U) is implementing the National Data Transmission Backbone Infrastructure and e-Government Infrastructure Project (NBI/EGI) whose major objective is to connect all major towns and Government agencies within the country onto a high speed Optical Fibre Cable based Network.
The National Backbone Initiative  broadly consists of the following:1536.39Kms of Optical Fibre Cable across the country to build the National Data Transmission Backbone;Optical Fibre connections from Kampala-Busia/Malaba Border to connect Uganda to Kenya, Kampala-Nimule, to connect Uganda to Southern Sudan and Kampala-Katuna to connect Uganda to Rwanda.

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www.nita.go.ug

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI 1) Smart Woman Nigeria

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375 Leave a comment on paragraph 375 0 2) FMCT/Huawei 1000 Girls

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380 Leave a comment on paragraph 380 0 3) Digital Girls in ICT/Digital Girls Club

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389 Leave a comment on paragraph 389 0 4) TBTT

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412 Leave a comment on paragraph 412 0 5) The African Technology Foundation tech bootcamps

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429 Leave a comment on paragraph 429 0 3) ITU

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443 Leave a comment on paragraph 443 0 4) APC

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465 Leave a comment on paragraph 465 0 5) The African Technology Foundation

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Nigeria/ national Partial gender dimension (some focus on gender)

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1) Smart Woman Nigeria is an online network of women in Nigeria who receive important information about topics like health, education, and agriculture via their mobile phones. This initiative has enabled rural and less privileged women to access information to help them meet their socioeconomic needs (e.g., information about health, education, agriculture, etc.).
2) FMCT/Huawei 1000 Girls leverages a private-public partnership with an ICT company to train 1,000 girls in practical ICT skills and knowledge to increase employability.
3) Digital Girls ICT focuses on developing ICT interest and skills among secondary school girls through their participation in digital clubs that include exposure to cutting-edge training in ICT skills. Though women represent more than 50% of Nigeria’s population, they occupy fewer than 20% of ICT jobs in the country. Digital Girls Clubs encourage young girls to embrace ICT in order to bridge the existing digital divide between men and women.
4) Take Back the Tech! is a collaborative campaign to reclaim information and communication technology (ICT) to end violence against women (VAW).The campaign calls on all ICT users – especially women and girls – to take control of technology and strategically use any ICT platform at hand (mobile phones, instant messengers, blogs, websites, digital cameras, email, podcasts and more) for activism against gender-based violence.Take Back the Tech! plans several campaigns throughout the year, with the biggest being 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence (November 25 – December 10 each year). Creative, strategic actions explore different aspects of VAW and ICT.

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470 Leave a comment on paragraph 470 0 5) To address the gender digital divide16 and ensure that women are provided an opportunity to develop as successful entrepreneurs, the African Technology Foundation recently conducted the first in a series of technology bootcamps for women at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Implemented in partnership with the College of Information and Communication Technologies (CoICT) at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Buni Divas, and HelptoHelp, the bootcamp was designed to achieve the following:

471 Leave a comment on paragraph 471 0 Give female students studying at higher education institutes in Tanzania computer skills trainings and an introduction to online learning tools to meet the needs of universities as well as future employers.
Train young Tanzanian women to become Technology Ambassadors, who can teach basic computer skills to fellow students, as well as in their home and business communities, with a focus on expanding into rural communities.
Encourage employers in Tanzania to increase their hiring quota for skilled women, and to design roles based on realistic workplace challenges.
Bootcamp participants were trained and then tested on their basic computing skills. They were introduced to various elements of basic computing, including word processing, presentation technologies, coding, and software development, and a number of women were invited to develop and present their ideas for potential new business start-ups.
 

1)

472 Leave a comment on paragraph 472 0 http://smartwomanproject.com/the-project/about/

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476 Leave a comment on paragraph 476 0 2) http://venturesafrica.com/nigeria-launches-programs-to-increase-female-participation-in-ict/

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480 Leave a comment on paragraph 480 0 http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Digital-Inclusion/Youth-and-Children/Pages/Girls-in-ICT.aspx

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482 Leave a comment on paragraph 482 0 4)

483 Leave a comment on paragraph 483 0 https://www.takebackthetech.net/frequently-asked-questions

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487 Leave a comment on paragraph 487 0 5)

488 Leave a comment on paragraph 488 0 http://www.thea25n.com/atf-programs

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Reprograma Brazil/São Paulo/ national

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Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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It focuses on teaching women on coding and enterpreneurship.

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http://reprograma.com.br/

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Kimberly Anastácio (Academia) IBIDEM Girls in ICT/ 2011 global Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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The Girls in ICT Portal is a tool for girls and young women to get an insight into the ICT sector as well as for partners to understand the importance of the International Girls in ICT Day.

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Claudia Costa (government), Poligen Brazil – SP/ national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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https://www.facebook.com/poligenUSP/?pnref=lhc

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Louise Marie Hurel (Academia),Center for Technology and Society at Getulio Vargas Foundation (CTS/FGV) Byte Girl Brazil/ national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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It is an annual conference focused in bringing women from across the country to talk about gender. The event is particularly focused in empowerment through gender-sensitive knowledge diffusion and capacity building through several workshops.

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bytegirl.com.br/#top

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Vanda Scartezini (civil society) DNS Women / 2010 Global Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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our international women movement DNS WOMEN are around the world encourage women to enter internet business, enlarge network for this to happen. WE have been meeting now in all 5 continents. We had last meeting in Helsinki and next one will be in Hyderabad , India

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504 Leave a comment on paragraph 504 0 …We started DNS women X years ago realizing inside ICANN there was no balance between women X men. We then started to meet in all ICANN meetings organizing our group, set up a formal identity, looking for sponsorship for our meetings. at each meeting we debate issues related to Internet business, we focus on enlarge network, and we invite all women from the region we meet to attend ( is free of charge), giving the floor to locals to explain their work there and difficulties women have is such region. Nowadays we are starting chapters around the world and debating our mission and how expand our activities to be locally more effective.

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www.dndwomen.org ( it is not up to date since karla, from US had a familiar problem and was not able to update the site. but it will be done.

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Esther de Freitas (technical community)

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Women and Mozilla and Web Literacy by Mozilla

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Brazil Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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They taught about internet and web for 150 women from a rural region and they provided acess to internet to that region

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http://blog.melc.at/womoz-week-brasil-mais-que-uma-homenagem-um-exemplo-a-ser-seguido/

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512 Leave a comment on paragraph 512 0 womoz.mozillabrasil.org.br

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Sofia Hammoe (civil); AMARC Conectar Igualdad/ 2010

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1) Argentina/ national

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524 Leave a comment on paragraph 524 0 2) América Latina y el Caribe

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Gender-blind (no mention of gender)

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1) Este Programa tiene el objetivo de entregar una netbook a todos los estudiantes y docentes de las escuelas públicas secundarias, de educación especial, y de los institutos de formación docente. Se propone, además, capacitar a los docentes en el uso de esta herramienta, y elaborar propuestas educativas que favorezcan su incorporación en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje.

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528 Leave a comment on paragraph 528 0 2) La Red de Mujeres de AMARC ALC es una asamblea de mujeres comunicadoras que trabajan para garantizar el derecho a comunicación de las mujeres con el apoyo y por medio del movimiento de radios comunitarias. La propuesta es   promover la discusión con perspectiva de género en las radios comunitarias, apoyando el trabajo de las mujeres principalmente a partir de la formación, y el intercambio de informaciones y experiencias.

http://www.conectarigualdad.gob.ar/

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538 Leave a comment on paragraph 538 0 amarcalc.org

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Carla Licciardello (IGF), ITU

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EQUALS, Girls and ICTS, BB Commission working group on gender

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Global Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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– ITU works with its government administrations (ministries and regulators) to encourage them to use their universal service/access funds to promote the digital inclusion of women, including providing digital literacy training and connectivity to rural areas.
– Girls and ICTs is a global campaign led by ITU which has seen 7,200 events in 160 countries reaching over 240,000 girls. These events are organized by Ministries of ICT, ICT Regulators, Universal Service Access Funds, Private Sector companies, Academia and NGOs.
– Moreover, ITU and UN Women are setting up EQUALS: the Global Partnership for Gender Equality in the Digital Age. This multi-stakeholder initiative aims to bring together programmes addressing the digital gender divide at the global, regional and national levels under a coordinated framework for action. The Partnership will focus on three areas of actions:1. Ensure women and girls have access to digital technologies
2. Empower women and girls as ICT creators
3. Increase recruitment and promotion of women in the ICT sector and promote opportunities for women’s entrepreneurship- ITU also organizes with UN Women the annual GEM-TECH Awards that celebrate personal or organizational achievements to advance Gender Equality and Mainstreaming in the area of ICTs. The only international prizes of their kind. The GEM-TECH Awards provide a platform for advancing women’s meaningful engagement with ICTs and their role as decision-makers and producers in the technology sector.
This year’s GEM-TECH Awards will be held at the Forum of Telecom World 2016 in Bangkok, Thailand, from 14-17 November.
– ITU is also preparing for a leadership workshop on negotiation, with a gender perspective, and panel discussion for delegates at the upcoming ITU World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA) which will be held in Tunisia from 23rd October to 3rd November 2016.

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www.itu.int

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Ivy Tuffuor Hoetu (govt), NCA 1) Social Media Platform for Women in SMEs

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550 Leave a comment on paragraph 550 0 2) Tech Needs Girls

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556 Leave a comment on paragraph 556 0 3) Technology for Female in ICT Project (T4F)

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565 Leave a comment on paragraph 565 0 2) Foundation for the Advancement of Communication Technology (FACT) Ghana

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Ghana/ national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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1) To create awareness and educate the women on how to use social media platform to
· Market their products – hair/cloth/shoe products, beauticians, designers, food stuff, etc.
· Provide services to customers.
· Interact with their customers and build social network with others.2) Tech Needs Girls is a movement and a mentorship program to get more girls to create technology. Our mission is mentoring girls to lead and innovate through learning to code.

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569 Leave a comment on paragraph 569 0  

570 Leave a comment on paragraph 570 0 3) The T4F project seeks to Educate & Empower Girls & Women through mentoring & training for:
– Basic, Junior High and Senior High female students in some selected schools; and, – Girls and women groups in some selected communities;
in the Greater Accra and Eastern Regions of Ghana.

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1)

572 Leave a comment on paragraph 572 0 http://www.ghanawomeninit.org/

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576 Leave a comment on paragraph 576 0 2)

577 Leave a comment on paragraph 577 0 http://www.factghana.org/#home

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581 Leave a comment on paragraph 581 0 3)

582 Leave a comment on paragraph 582 0 http://www.soronkosolutions.com/tng.html

583 Leave a comment on paragraph 583 0  

Denise Viola (civil), AMARC Brazil 1) Elas nas Extatas/ 2015

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591 Leave a comment on paragraph 591 0 2) Projeto Cyberela de Inclusão Digital de Mulheres

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national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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A iniciativa tem o objetivo de contribuir para a redução do impacto das desigualdades de gênero nas escolhas profissionais e no acesso à educação superior das estudantes, impactando também no acesso às Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação. O foco são meninas do ensino médio, estudantes de escolas públicas.

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596 Leave a comment on paragraph 596 0 São oferecidas às meninas oficinas de circuitos elétricos, aula-performance sobre mulheres cientistas, capacitação em robótica, programação com software livre, produção de webseries sobre a atuação de mulheres negras na história das ciências, criação de peixes e hortaliças com uso da técnica da aquaponia e capacitação na área automobilística através do desenvolvimento de um veículo . A iniciativa abriu um edital, no qual foram selecionados dez projetos de diversos estados do país.

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598 Leave a comment on paragraph 598 0 A ONG CEMINA – Comunicação, Educação e Informação em Gênero

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http://www.fundosocialelas.org/elasnasexatas/

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Júlia Ribeiro (civil society), trans.TI

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trans.TI/ 2016

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Brazil/ national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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This initiative was born along with my experience with TransENEM, a community prep course in Porto Alegre, Brazil, which is aimed at social inclusion of transgender women, men and non-binary people. The importance of digital inclusion of transgender and non-binary population comes with the fact social inclusion via inclusion in college and formal education takes a long way to be effective and to change their lives. Nowadays, 92% of transgender women in Brazil have their incomes derived from sexual work, and a significant part of these women do this because it’s the best way to have an income given the barriers they face in face of social and institutional discrimination. Therefore, digital inclusion is key for not only including them in the new world’s reality and spectre of interpersonal relations, but also to change their lives without having to rely on solving traditional educational gaps. Therefore, trans.TI works in two ways: i) through the capacitation of workforce by providing IT related and English courses; ii) developing and building healthy and friendly workplace environment in IT companies by providing consultancy related to or targeted social group.

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https://www.facebook.com/transtipoa/ or our presentation (in Portuguese): http://tinyurl.com/trans-TI-apresentacao

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Rebecca Ryakitimbo (civl soc), TechChix-Tanzania

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STEM Mentoring Workshops/ 2016

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Tanzania/ national Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

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This initiative is run by a non-profit organization that seek to provide STEM awareness to tomorrow’s leaders who are the children of today by teaching them STEM related activities. It focuses on advocating for STE M careers among females, internet governance being inclusive.It is in this light that with the help of the Internet society organization (ISOC) sponsored 8 female engineers to attend different sessions of training on internet technologies.This initiative is still in progress and needs more support but we hope to run it fully soon.

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http://techchix-tz.weebly.com/

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615 Leave a comment on paragraph 615 0 Examples of existing documentation on the gender digital divide

616 Leave a comment on paragraph 616 0 In addition to the need for gathering information about existing initiatives aimed at addressing women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet, the BPF also aimed to gather information about existing research, documents and/or reports on related topics.

617 Leave a comment on paragraph 617 0 For this reason, the survey asked whether respondents knew of any reports (including documents, blogs, policy briefs, articles, or other written material) that had been written on the topic of the gender digital divide, or women’s meaningful access to the Internet, or simply material concerned with access that might be of relevance to efforts aimed at bridging the gender digital divide and/or gender and access issues. Respondents were asked to list relevant reports, titles, authors, publication dates and relevant URLs (if any). Submissions were:

Contributor Publication title Author(s) Date URL
Sellina Khumbo Kapondera (Academia), Mzuzu University The challenges rural women face in using Telecentres: The case of the Eastern Cape Province Nozibele Gcora, Amanda Gopeni, Mbali Tuswa, Tandi Lwoga , Wallace Chigona 2015 http://www.developmentinformatics.org/conferences/2015/papers/6-Gcora-Gopeni-Tuswa-Lwoga-Wallace.pdf

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Júlia Ribeiro (civil society), Universide Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS

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Global Information Society Watch: 2013 – Women’s rights, gender and ICTs

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Hanane Boujemi

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2013 http://www.giswatch.org/2013-womens-rights-gender-and-icts

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Ingrid Brudvig (civil society), Web Foundation

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Women’s Right Online: Translating Access into Empowerment

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Web Foundation

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October 2015

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http://webfoundation.org/docs/2015/10/womens-rights-online21102015.pdf

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Ingrid Brudvig (civil society), Web Foundation

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Affordability Report

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Alliance for Affordable Internet

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2016

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http://a4ai.org/affordability-report/report/2015/

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Natalia (tech), NIC.br Journal of Peer Production, “Feminism and (Un)Hacking”

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Special Issue Editors (in alphabetical order): Shaowen Bardzell, Lilly Nguyen, and Sophie Toupin 2016 http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-8-feminism-and-unhacking/

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Natalia (tech), NIC.br Recoding Gender: Women’s Changing Participation in Computing

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Janet Abbate

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2012 https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/recoding-gender

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Carolina Lasen (IGO), Council of Europe

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Factsheet on Combating Sexist Hate Speech

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Council of Europe 2016 https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680651592

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Carolina Lasen (IGO), Council of Europe

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BACKGROUND NOTE ON SEXIST HATE SPEECH

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Council of Europe 2016 https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=090000168059ad42

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Carolina Lasen (IGO), Council of Europe

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Recommendation CM/Rec(2013)1

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Council of Europe July 2013

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https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805c7c7e

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Carolina Lasen (IGO), Council of Europe

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Women’s Reporting Point

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Launched by the European Federation of Journalists (EFJ) partners with the European Centre for Press and Media Freedom (ECPMF

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2016 http://europeanjournalists.org/blog/2016/03/08/new-platform-to-monitor-threats-against-women-journalists/

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Carolina Lasen (IGO), Council of Europe

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Report of the seminar Combating Sexist Hate Speech

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Council of Europe February 2016

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https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016805a933a

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Marta García Terán (civil society), Save the Children

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Procomunicando blog / Weekly columns on Diario Metro Nicaragua

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Marta García Terán Weekly since 2013

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https://procomunicando.wordpress.com/category/marta-garcia-teran/columnas-en-metro/

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Marta García Terán (civil society), Save the Children

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Tesis: “La brecha digital de género”

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Iker Merchan

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2015 https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/284774/The-gender-digital-divide-La-brecha-digital-de-g%C3%A9nero-def.pdf

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Marta García Terán (civil society), Save the Children

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+Hangout No.60: Acceso a Internet y violencia en línea hacia mujeres (y mujeres periodistas)

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Hangouts de Periodismo / Mauricio Jaramillo

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2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awBzRTMA0o8

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Marta García Terán (civil society), Save the Children

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Women´s Rights Online

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Web Foundation

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2015 http://apo.org.au/files/Resource/womensrightsonlinewf_oct2015.pdf

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Niken (civil society), FAMM Indonesia EROTICS: Exploratory research on sexuality and the internet

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APC et al 2011 http://www.genderit.org/resources/erotics-exploratory-research-sexuality-and-internet-summary-report

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Niken (civil society), FAMM Indonesia Women’s Rights Online Translating Access into Empowerment

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Web Foundation with its partner

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2015 http://webfoundation.org/about/research/womens-rights-online-2015/

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Helani Galpaya (civil society), LIRNEasia Mobile Phones, Internet and Gender in Myanmar

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Zainudeen Z. , Galpaya H.

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2015 http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Mobile-phones-internet-and-gender-in-Myanmar.pdf

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Alfredo Velazco (civil society), Usuarios Digitales

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ICT Facts and Figures 2016

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ITU 2016 http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/facts/default.aspx

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NOT DISCLOSED UCAS survey of women in universities

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UCAS Annual  
NOT DISCLOSED Women and the Web

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Intel Unknown  
Katharina Jens (UK) Bridging the Gender Gap

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Connected Women (GSMA)

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2015 http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/programmes/connected-women/bridging-gender-gap

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Sylvia Musalagani (civil society), HIVOS

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The Dark Side of Virtual: Towards a Digital Sexual Ethics.

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Nicola Henry and Anastasia Powell

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2014 http://www.academia.edu/7992691/The_Dark_Side_of_Virtual_Towards_a_Digital_Sexual_Ethics_with_Nicola_Henry_

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Michael Oghia (Civil society), HIVOS

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Empowering women through the back door: Digital activism for women’s rights in the Arab World

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Aline Sara

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2015 http://womeninwar.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Beirut/8/Aline%20Sara_Digital%20Activism%20for%20women’s%20rights%20in%20the%20Arab%20World.pdf

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Michael Oghia (Civil society), HIVOS

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Bridging the gender gap: Mobile access and usage in low- and middle-income countries

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GSMA 2015 http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/programmes/connected-women/bridging-gender-gap

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Katambi Joan (Aca), Uganda Institute of ICT

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ICT FACTS AND FIGURES 2016

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ITU 2016 http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/facts/

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI

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2015-16 Affordability Report (Chapter 4 – Gender Inequality: Exacerbating Affordability Challenges)

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A4AI 2015 http://a4ai.org/affordability-report/report/2015/#gender_inequality:_exacerbating_affordability_challenges

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI

706 Leave a comment on paragraph 706 0 Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI

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Unpacking Myanmar’s Mobile Phone Gender Gap

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Ayesha Zainudeen and Helani Galpaya of LIRNEasia

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22 April 2016

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http://a4ai.org/unpacking-myanmars-mobile-phone-gender-gap/

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI

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Developing an Inclusive and Gender-Responsive Digital Agenda in the Dominican Republic

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A4AI

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1 April 2016

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http://a4ai.org/developing-an-inclusive-and-gender-responsive-digital-agenda-in-the-dominican-republic/

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI

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Web Foundation and A4AI Join Forces with UN Women to Promote Women’s Empowerment through the Web

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A4AI

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8 March 2016

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http://a4ai.org/web-foundation-and-a4ai-join-forces-with-un-women-to-promote-womens-empowerment-through-the-web/

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI Putting Gender at the Heart of Policy in Ghana

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A4AI

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18 December 2015

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http://a4ai.org/putting-gender-at-the-heart-of-policy-in-ghana/

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Erica Penfold/Dhanaraj Thakur (civil society), A4AI Increasing Women’s Online Access, Driving Development

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A4AI

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20 November 2015 http://a4ai.org/increasing-womens-online-access-driving-development/

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Paula Perez (Tech community), D&D Internacional – GN MARKETING INC

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female entrepreneurship

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http://laboratoria.la/noticias/articulo/mariana-costa-conversa-con-el-presidente-obama-y-mark-zuckerberg

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Karina Barreto (academia)

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Quandeel Baloch killed by her brother

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Playground

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16/06/2016

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http://www.playgroundmag.net/noticias/actualidad/Kim-Kardashian-paquistani-asesinada-hermano_0_1793820604.html

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Unidentified (Panama, govt) 100 RULES OF BRASILIA ON ACCESS TO JUSTICE OF INDIVIDUALS CONDITION VULNERABILITY

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https://www.justiciachaco.gov.ar/pjch/contenido/varios/100reglas.pdf

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Louise Marie Hurel (academia), Center for Technology and Society at Getulio Vargas Foundation (CTS/FGV)

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Women’s Rights, Gender and Internet Governance

740 Leave a comment on paragraph 740 0 Feminist Principles of the Internet

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http://feministinternet.net

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Vanda Scartezini

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it was a very interesting report from IBM about reasons why there are less women in STEM areas. I saw an presentation but do not have the report itself.

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IBM

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if I remember it was around 2012

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unhappily I do not have access to this report.

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Daniela Viteri (aca)

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GIT, Fundación Karisma, several in mexico

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Rebecca Ryakitimbo (civil society), TechChix-Tanzania

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Women rights online digital gender gap audit

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World wide web foundation

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September 9,2016

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http://webfoundation.org/about/research/digital-gender-gap-audit/

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Rebecca Ryakitimbo (civil society), TechChix-Tanzania

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The Digital Gender Gap: Unleashing the Value of the Internet for Women

756 Leave a comment on paragraph 756 0  

Mia Mitchell

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April 30,2015

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http://harvardkennedyschoolreview.com/the-digital-gender-gap-unleashing-the-value-of-the-internet-for-women-2/

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759 Leave a comment on paragraph 759 0  

760 Leave a comment on paragraph 760 0  

761 Leave a comment on paragraph 761 0

762 Leave a comment on paragraph 762 0 SECTION 2 SURVEY CONTENT

763 Leave a comment on paragraph 763 0 The survey was conducted using Google Forms, which allows an unlimited number of questions and responses and user-friendly design mechanisms to aid the layout of the survey.  The survey contents are copied below (although the formatting is not reproduced).

764 Leave a comment on paragraph 764 0  

765 Leave a comment on paragraph 765 0 IGF BPF GENDER & ACCESS SURVEY

766 Leave a comment on paragraph 766 0  

767 Leave a comment on paragraph 767 0 GENDER AND ACCESS: ENABLING WOMEN’S ABILITY TO ACCESS AND BENEFIT FROM THE INTERNET 

768 Leave a comment on paragraph 768 0 This survey was designed for an online platform and reflects best there: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1o3aeN7Tft7Lunsx3AXu8HXu1nXSAjtdkkOCLCXlqPJw/edit

769 Leave a comment on paragraph 769 0  

770 Leave a comment on paragraph 770 0 Context:

771 Leave a comment on paragraph 771 0  

772 Leave a comment on paragraph 772 0 Almost 60% of the world’s people are still offline (World Bank, 2016) and are thus unable to benefit from the many opportunities ICTs offer for empowerment and development. In addition, this challenge is even more acute for women, as it is estimated that 12% fewer women than men can benefit from Internet access worldwide; rising to 15% in developing countries and almost 29% in least developed countries (ITU, 2016). As the Alliance for Affordable Internet argues (2016): “‘We cannot achieve universal access without bringing women (half the world’s population) online; likewise, women’s empowerment through ICTs will not happen without enabling women affordable access to the Internet.”

773 Leave a comment on paragraph 773 0 The United Nations Internet Governance Forum (IGF) best practice forum (BPF) on Gender is currently studying ways to ensure equal access to the Internet regardless of gender. To ascertain what initiatives and work has been done and is currently ongoing to address women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet, the BPF decided to map existing initiatives and work using an open and accessible platform, like this survey.

774 Leave a comment on paragraph 774 0 BPFs like this one were created by the IGF to bring the global community together to address some of the most pertinent challenges pertaining to the Internet and the ways in which it is used, governed, developed and benefitted from.

775 Leave a comment on paragraph 775 0 It takes approximately 15-30 minutes to complete this survey (depending on the number of initiatives and publications you know of).

776 Leave a comment on paragraph 776 0 Please note that all references to ‘women’ in this survey also include people who identify as women, and girls (unless otherwise specified). 

777 Leave a comment on paragraph 777 0  

778 Leave a comment on paragraph 778 0 Tell us about yourself

779 Leave a comment on paragraph 779 0  

780 Leave a comment on paragraph 780 0 What stakeholder group do you belong to?

781 Leave a comment on paragraph 781 0 (Select closest option.)

  • 782 Leave a comment on paragraph 782 0
  • Government (e.g. you work for your government)
  • Technical community (e.g. you design websites or applications)
  • Civil society (e.g. you consider yourself an activist working to ensure human rights apply online)
  • Private sector (e.g. you represent a company that sells mobile plans to customers)
  • Intergovernmental organisation (e.g. you work for an organisation like the UN)
  • Academia (e.g. you’re a student or lecturer)
  • Other:

783 Leave a comment on paragraph 783 0  

784 Leave a comment on paragraph 784 0 Where are you from?

785 Leave a comment on paragraph 785 0 Please write only the country name where you are ordinarily resident – i.e. where you spend most of your time and consider your home.

786 Leave a comment on paragraph 786 0  

787 Leave a comment on paragraph 787 0 What is your name?

788 Leave a comment on paragraph 788 0 You can remain anonymous if you choose to. If you don’t mind telling us who you are, please write your name.

789 Leave a comment on paragraph 789 0  

790 Leave a comment on paragraph 790 0 What organization do you work for?

791 Leave a comment on paragraph 791 0 You can remain anonymous if you choose to. If you don’t mind telling us who you are affiliated to, please write your organization’s name.

792 Leave a comment on paragraph 792 0  

793 Leave a comment on paragraph 793 0 How can we get in touch with you?

794 Leave a comment on paragraph 794 0 What is your email address? Note that contact details will not be published, and we will not share your contact details with any third parties.

795 Leave a comment on paragraph 795 0  

796 Leave a comment on paragraph 796 0 About women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet

797 Leave a comment on paragraph 797 0  

798 Leave a comment on paragraph 798 0 Almost 60 percent of the world’s people are still offline (World Bank, 2016) and are thus unable to benefit from the many opportunities ICTs offer for empowerment and development. It is furthermore estimated that there is a gender gap of 11% in male and female access to the Internet worldwide, rising to more than 15% in developing countries and almost 29% in least developed countries (ITU, 2015).

799 Leave a comment on paragraph 799 0  

800 Leave a comment on paragraph 800 0 Women and men have equal opportunity to access and benefit from the Internet.

801 Leave a comment on paragraph 801 0 Please rate on a scale of 1 to 5 whether you agree or disagree with the statement, where 1 is strongly disagree and 5 is strongly agree.

802 Leave a comment on paragraph 802 0  

803 Leave a comment on paragraph 803 0 What, if any, are the barriers preventing women from accessing and benefitting from the Internet?

  • 804 Leave a comment on paragraph 804 0
  • Availability (e.g. women have no broadband access or public internet centres are in spaces where women don’t usually have access to etc.)
  • Affordability (e.g. insufficient income to pay for data, or cannot afford a device etc.)
  • Culture and norms (e.g. boys prioritised for technology use at home, online gender-based violence, restrictions to movement etc.)
  • Capacity and skills (e.g. literacy gap in reading, lacking in skills and confidence to access the internet or explore technology etc.)
  • Availability of relevant content (e.g. language issues, lack of content that speaks to women’s contexts, gender-related content is censored/restricted)
  • Women’s participation in decision-making roles pertaining to the Internet and/or in the technology sector (e.g. when women are not able to pursue careers in science and technology, when their participation in relevant policymaking fora is restricted)
  • Availability of relevant policies (e.g. policies with a gender focus and/or that address women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet)
  • Other:

805 Leave a comment on paragraph 805 0  

806 Leave a comment on paragraph 806 0 Please provide a brief explanation of your response regarding barriers to help us understand the context better. Do you have any examples of these barriers?

807 Leave a comment on paragraph 807 0 i.e. what are the barriers you think are important, and how do they relate to another in impacting women’s ability to access and benefit from the Internet?

808 Leave a comment on paragraph 808 0  

809 Leave a comment on paragraph 809 0 Help us map existing initiatives

810 Leave a comment on paragraph 810 0  

811 Leave a comment on paragraph 811 0 Do you know of any past, existing or planned initiatives, programmes and/or projects concerned with enabling Internet access, addressing the gender digital divide and/or empowering more women to access the Internet?

812 Leave a comment on paragraph 812 0  

813 Leave a comment on paragraph 813 0 What is the name of this initiative?

814 Leave a comment on paragraph 814 0  

815 Leave a comment on paragraph 815 0 When was the initiative launched?

816 Leave a comment on paragraph 816 0 An approximate date will do (e.g. 2015).

817 Leave a comment on paragraph 817 0  

818 Leave a comment on paragraph 818 0 Who is responsible for the initiative?

819 Leave a comment on paragraph 819 0 i.e. what person or organisation is running the initiative?

820 Leave a comment on paragraph 820 0  

821 Leave a comment on paragraph 821 0 Where can we find more information about the initiative?

822 Leave a comment on paragraph 822 0 i.e. what website would be useful in learning more?

823 Leave a comment on paragraph 823 0  

824 Leave a comment on paragraph 824 0 What country/region is the initiative focused on?

825 Leave a comment on paragraph 825 0 i.e. what area is the initiative focused on in actually doing its work? An initiative can derive from the USA, for instance, but can aim to alleviate the gender digital divide in Kenya, for instance.

826 Leave a comment on paragraph 826 0  

827 Leave a comment on paragraph 827 0 Is the initiative national, regional or global in its operation?

828 Leave a comment on paragraph 828 0 Note that ‘national’ includes local or grassroots initiatives.

829 Leave a comment on paragraph 829 0  

830 Leave a comment on paragraph 830 0 Please provide us with a brief summary/ key highlights of the initiative

831 Leave a comment on paragraph 831 0 A paragraph will do.

832 Leave a comment on paragraph 832 0  

833 Leave a comment on paragraph 833 0 To what extent does the initiative reflect a gender dimension?

834 Leave a comment on paragraph 834 0 In other words, is the initiative gender-blind (no mention of gender), gender-focused (it contains a strong focus on gender), or does it contain a partial dimension of gender (i.e. gender is not the main theme, but it is mentioned)?

835 Leave a comment on paragraph 835 0 Gender-blind (no mention of gender)

836 Leave a comment on paragraph 836 0 Gender-focused (main focus on gender)

837 Leave a comment on paragraph 837 0 Partial gender dimension (some focus on gender)

838 Leave a comment on paragraph 838 0  

839 Leave a comment on paragraph 839 0 Any other notes that you’d like to share in respect of this initiative?

840 Leave a comment on paragraph 840 0  

841 Leave a comment on paragraph 841 0 Do you know of another relevant initiative?

842 Leave a comment on paragraph 842 0  

843 Leave a comment on paragraph 843 0 [repeat]

844 Leave a comment on paragraph 844 0  

845 Leave a comment on paragraph 845 0  

846 Leave a comment on paragraph 846 0 Help us map existing research and reports

847 Leave a comment on paragraph 847 0  

848 Leave a comment on paragraph 848 0 Do you know of any reports (including documents, blogs, policy briefs, articles, or other written material) that have been written on the topic of the gender digital divide, or women’s meaningful access to the Internet, or simply material concerned with access that might be of relevance to efforts aimed at bridging the gender digital divide and/or gender and access issues?

849 Leave a comment on paragraph 849 0  

850 Leave a comment on paragraph 850 0 Do you know of any research or reports aimed at addressing, in whole or part, gender and meaningful access?

851 Leave a comment on paragraph 851 0  

852 Leave a comment on paragraph 852 0 Title:

853 Leave a comment on paragraph 853 0  

854 Leave a comment on paragraph 854 0 Author:

855 Leave a comment on paragraph 855 0  

856 Leave a comment on paragraph 856 0 Publication date:

857 Leave a comment on paragraph 857 0 URL (if any):

858 Leave a comment on paragraph 858 0  

859 Leave a comment on paragraph 859 0 [repeat]

860 Leave a comment on paragraph 860 0  

861 Leave a comment on paragraph 861 0 Join us

862 Leave a comment on paragraph 862 0  

863 Leave a comment on paragraph 863 0 Are you interested in helping us learn more about gender and meaningful access? We welcome all participants:

864 Leave a comment on paragraph 864 0  

865 Leave a comment on paragraph 865 0 Join our mailing list for updates on meetings and other developments:

866 Leave a comment on paragraph 866 0 http://www.intgovforum.org/mailman/listinfo/bp_gender_intgovforum.org.

867 Leave a comment on paragraph 867 0  

868 Leave a comment on paragraph 868 0 Learn more about this initiative on the IGF’s website.

869 Leave a comment on paragraph 869 0  

870 Leave a comment on paragraph 870 0 For more information, contact Anri van der Spuy ([email protected]).

871 Leave a comment on paragraph 871 0  

872 Leave a comment on paragraph 872 0 Thank you

873 Leave a comment on paragraph 873 0  

874 Leave a comment on paragraph 874 0 We appreciate the time you spent in completing this survey, look forward to learning from your valued responses, and hopefully to welcoming you to our BPF in the future.

875 Leave a comment on paragraph 875 0  

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Source: https://www.intgovforum.org/review/2016-igf-best-practice-forums-bpfs-draft-outputs-as-of-2-november/igf-bpf-gender-and-access/part-c-appendices/3/