IGF 2019 – Day 2 – Convention Hall I-D – OF #25 Technological Innovation and Challenges to Data Governance

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Berlin, Germany, from 25 to 29 November 2019. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 



>> LI YUXIAO: Take your seats, please. Let's start our forum. Good morning, everyone. Welcome to the open forum hosted by the Internet Cooperation Bureau of Cyberspace Administration of China and the Chinese Economy of Cyberspace Studies.

I'm the Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Cyberspace Studies. I'm also the General Secretary to Cybersecurity Association of China. I'm very happy to host today's forum.

Now let me introduce some important speakers and the distinguished guests in our forum.

Madam General (?) Direction of International Corporation Bureau of the Cyberspace Administration of China.

And also Professor Demi Getschko from Brazil.

And Professor (?), I know you're just a new doctor. Congratulations.

Also, Professor (?) Associate Professor of law from Singapore.

And, also, Ms. (?) Secretary General of the (?) She's also Deputy Director of (?)

We also have another important speaker. (?) Senior researcher at law and development economy at University.

Today, your topic is about the technical innovation and challenges to data governance. Everyone knows that the data governance is very important. This year, 15 years, the countries have generally taken cyberspace as a key area to seize commanding heights of future development and building new advantages in international competition.

Standing at a new historical standing point, opportunity and challenges exist but opportunities outweigh the challenges. The development of the Internet is now driving toward the future with all looking toward life.

We know that everyone from the government to the industry to civil society to the customer, we realize that data governance, we must think about it.

If some of you would like to take this report, I will ask my colleagues to give it to you. I think the proposal of this open forum seeks to engage delegates and experts from international organizations, technical community in the global international sectors. Indeed, discussion on the development opportunity and challenges to global social and economic progress brought about by AI by 5G and other technical innovation. I think the ideas are shared such as issues on the impact of data governance policies and the new technologies over the course of the world, of course, international rules making data governance on new technologies.

It's also encouraged best practice sharing on data governance and the pertinent information protection for all parties on collaborated data governance model with multi‑party participation.

So let's start our forum, the first part, the keynote speech, let me invite to address a few words to us.

>> Thank you, chair. Good morning, ladies and gentlemen, my fellow panelists. Welcome to the open forum. On behalf Of the Cyberspace Administration of China, the organizer of this event, I wish to extend to you our warm welcome and deep appreciation for your presence today.

Nowadays, as the Internet is progressing with each passing day, a new technical revolution is in the making. Modern information technologies represented by 5G, AI, big data, blockchain, are making breakthroughs constantly, adding momentum to the world presenting challenges.

The technological no objection also brought multiple challenges to cybersecurity of the world. As the new data‑driven technologies are put into application at an increasingly faster pace, the ensuing regulatory, legal, and ethical problems have crossed national borders, exerting profound impact on Internet data governance, cyberspace security, and stable development.

They are also making new demands on the global Internet governor system and the rules of governance. It's the right time, now that we are gathered here today and engaged in serious discussions on technology innovation and the data governance chances. I hope that in this way we can contribute to the commemoration of the 50th birthday of the Internet.

As a major Internet country, China attaches equal importance to cybersecurity and the digital economy. With the people‑centered concept in mind, we are committed to effectively safeguarding the vital interests of the people in cyberspace.

On June 1st, 2019, China put in place the cybersecurity law. It's the framework and basic law on cybersecurity in China. It is systematically elaborates China's position, objectives, principles, and mission on cybersecurity and also defines China's data security at the administration system.

Based on cybersecurity law, we have drafted supporting measures targeting the major risks in data security. Why is measures for data security a demonstration focusing on regulating data collection, storage, transmission, processing, usage, et cetera, and it also specifies the responsibilities and obligations of the stakeholders for safeguarding data security.

The other is measures for security assessment for across‑border transfer of personal information. It specifies that the personal information shall be subject to security assessments for across‑border transfer. The personal information can be transferred abroad if the security assessment proves that it would not endanger national security nor harm public interest.

And the security of personal information can be effectively safeguarded. A note to make is that it is the personal information collected during business operations in China that shall be subject to cross‑border transfer assessment.

The data about the enterprises themselves are not included. At present, the two measures are open to the public for comments and are being revised according to the public opinions.

In formulating these measures, we have fully taken into account the demand of economic globalization for across‑border flow of data. We have also learned from the GDPR of the EU, among other practices. These measures are not meant to block the across‑border flow of data, let alone restricting international trade. They are made to balance the need for data security and cross‑border flow of data, promote innovation, and application of information technology and give full play to the huge potential of the Internet.

Today, mobile technology is progressing fast, and 5G is being applied. China stands ready to work with all countries of the world to jointly embrace the historical opportunities of IT revolution and tackle the risks and challenges of cyberspace. The Internet benefits all human beings. To that end, I would like to make three proposals under innovation of Internet technology and the governance in cyberspace.

First, strive to build a community with a shared future in cyberspace. Last month, during the six world Internet conference, we issued the concept paper Jointly Build a Community With A Shared Future in Cyberspace. We have copies in the room. I don't know where, but you can get the copies.

Following the four principles and the five proposals and other important concepts put forward by president of China.

Second, earnestly safeguard peace and security in cyberspace. China is against using the Internet to exploit other countries. The Chinese government has required enterprises to operate legally in the countries where they do business.

We call for the peaceful use of cyberspace. We're against stealing other country's data. We're opposed to cyberattacks. We're encouraging best practices with other countries and listen to their experiences to promote the orderly free flow of data.

As the fastest‑growing and most extensive economic activity, the digital economy has become the new engine of the global economy. This year marks the 25th anniversary of China's all‑run access to the Internet. China's digital economy has entered a fast‑track of development. In 2018, China's digital economy raised 33.1 ‑‑ that's 4.5 trillion U.S. dollars, accounting for a percentage of the GDP.

Smart plus has made services more economical and accessible and a stronger gain for hundreds of millions of people.

5G is a strong driving force for the development of the digital economy and will bring huge empowerment to the digital economy. China has actively participated in R&D in a standard setting of the global 5G technology and has contributed China's wisdom. China requires enterprises to provide secure technological product, and China law prohibits malicious programs, such as back doors in products. We will cooperate with all countries in the world to promote construction of information and communication infrastructure, improve network connectivity, vigorously foster new business models, shared dividends of the development of digital economy and jointly create a brighter future for cyberspace.

To conclude, I wish the forum a complete success. Thank you, all.

( Applause )

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you.

Now, I want to invite Professor Pugin. Will you say something to us.

>> Can you hear me over there?

>> LI YUXIAO: Yeah.

>> Thank you for giving me a chance to put down some ideas. I'm an old man, and therefore I don't have the same illusions as I had when I was young. But I think that's true for every age in life. You always have illusions of some kind.

So what I hear about Internet, I would say I've been hearing that from the very beginning. Number of things happened, like mobile, like AI. That's one. But it's not finished.

Recently, I was reading a paper written by the CEO of a company that makes planes. It's a big industry in France. The CEO said, I'm sure it's unavoidable that there will be thousands of Internets. At the time, there are still the illusion that there should be one Internet for all, but that's only an illusion. It's been an illusion for a number of years already. When you hear about thousands, some people won't believe it. But it probably will happen because that's a prediction that was made by one of the major manufacturers in France.

Those people have already thought of the future more than other people. Now, what I hear about the various technologies that are coming, they may not be exactly what has been announced or published or dreamed of. That's okay. If there were no dreams, there would be no progress. So I like dreams when they're made by other people.

In this way, we have a conjunction of various dreams that fight each other. Fighting is part of the necessary necessity, but it's part of human life. You should get billions of people around the world, how can they agree about something as similar as cooperation? What is cooperation? In a way, fighting each other in a friendly manner.

And why do we have weapons? Why do we have weapons? Because when we don't agree, we kill each other. That's not necessarily the best thing to do. There's not too many people around the world. Let's kill half of them. Is that reasonable? I don't know. We have to look at what we see happening. We should question the decisions made by everybody else, not to kill them but to try and find out why they have different ideas and what is maybe acceptable or perhaps happening in a better way than we know today. I think that's necessary in the case of humanity of having different ideas and discuss them.

So probably what needs to be improved is the capacity of exchanging ideas and questioning ideas until someone finds a reasonable way to solve them.

Now, what's going to happen the next century? Well, at the moment, predictions are, for example, lack of space all human being, lack of water for human beings. When we say "human beings," we should also say any species in the world because the grass, the animals, insects, they all need some kind of resources. And if man, if humanity, is starving, they will find ways to get things animals eat at the moment. Therefore, there will be a limit of what is made available for the human people.

So I'm not so optimistic about that, but it takes a few hundred years to reach, I guess, before it can be observed. But it's suddenly a big risk for the human species and all the other species.

At the moment, the Internet, as I said, is a big boss in France predicting thousands of Internet. And some people may not take it seriously, but I think it should be because with technology and training of students, training of scientists, it's indeed absolutely no obstacle for having thousands of Internets. It will be sold in boxes for things you give away at Christmas like toys. And why not? Internet needs communication tools. We have them. They can be improved a lot. They can be improved by capacity, 1,000 or more. When you have tools, you can add all kinds of instruments for getting data in it and out. Therefore, I don't see why number of Internets would be limited to one or two. Actually, we worked in my team, and it was a way to get away with the monopoly of the single Internet. And that's already broken. But once you have two or three or 10 Internet, you will have a hundred or a thousand or billions. Why not, you know? It doesn't have to be a monopoly as long as it carries the things you're expecting.

I think we should consentuate on things that will be hard to get. We need to find a way to avoid that for as long as we can. We may not be able to succeed. We may terminate, as everybody is sick and doomed to death in a short time. Who knows? But we should not exclude this kind of catastrophe.

Thank you very much.

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you, professor. Thank you for your speech. Professor is nearly 80 years old. 50 years ago, he had a lot of very and is still active on the scene of global innovation. Also thinking about the technical norms. I think we must say thanks to him again. Thank you, professor.

( Applause )

>> LI YUXIAO: Now, I want to invite another member.

>> Okay. Good morning, everybody. Thank you very much for the invitation to be in this panel. It's really an honor to share the table with those involved in the Internet from the very beginning.

I have a very short presentation. It's more or less of the things that are going on in Brazil and how we're related to Internet governance. Just to take the opportunity to remember we are commemorating 50 years of what is said the beginning of the network. Professor has a role in that. It's kind of worthy and technical innovation that we have.

One of the things we has the Internet community strive to keep is some of the principles. Here is some of the known principles of the beginning of the Internet in a way that we have to be aware of what we do and we have the ideal way to develop standards, and the IGF is a good example of that.

I have three phrases of John Barlow that passed away a year ago. This is a world without prejudice where anyone can express his opinion, et cetera, et cetera. It's kind of romantic views, but, really, we strive to keep these things alive.

Just to show more or less how we're doing this in Brazil, we have a multistakeholder organization and the Internet governance model in Brazil, the unique governance model.

Here is the composition of the CGI. We are 21 members, eight from the government and the others from the civil society academia elected by their constituents. We have a model that is good to try in other parts of the world. We have centers, the registry, the nic.br umbrella we have a strong generation of statistics over the Internet. We have also other activities in the area. This is the nic.br. It's more or less the fourth in the world. We're going a good job of connecting the parts that make the Internet work.

Okay. The CGI, as I said, coordinates the Internet progress and development in Brazil. We are not the regulator. We do not have any regulating power, but we promote the best practices and promote suggestions and directives for the public policy to have a better Internet. Here is some of the points we are trying to do.

As for history, we're commemorating 50 years of the beginning of the Internet. 30 years in Brazil devoted to this activity. We began in '88, '89. The Brazilian committee was created in '95.

Okay. There's a lot of involvement of the CGI in producing legislation ‑‑ or suggesting legislation in some way, fighting to have legislation in place. These are some points. We have privacy and personal data just enacted in Brazil in 2018. It's a very good law more or less in the same way as the GDPR. We have also the Brazilian Civil Rights framework. It was developed five years ago. We have, of course, other things.

In 2009, the CGI published 10 principles to try to protect what I said in the beginning, the initial concepts of openness and transparency and inclusiveness of the Internet. These are the 10 principles. These are the five initials and the other five here.

It was very well ‑‑ this initiative was very well received by the community. We chose this in the IGF, I think, in Latvia. This is a lot of things here too. I will leave this.

Let's go ahead. As I said, this is the operational body, nic.br. There are a lot of activities in the area.

As I said, the NETmundial. We're commemorating five years of NETmundial. There will many good things about NETmundial. It is interesting to read and see these principles. These are the public comment we've received in all parts of the world, shared participation and so. Here is part of the principles, the security, stability, resilience of the Internet.

We also have this. We're facing new challenges, the Internet of Things, how to put things in place. We have to decide something about artificial intelligence. This is the European Union checklist about that. There's a lot of principles here we have to check to see if we're not doing something that will harm the civil rights or freedom or anything like that.

Artificial intelligence, it's good to have in mind that we have a lot of things involved in this umbrella. You have big data, you have data mining, data science. We have a lot of collection of information. We have learning and deep learning. This comprises the whole picture, and we call all of this artificial intelligence, but it's not totally right.

This is about cybernetics. Remember, the root of cyber is control. And when we're calling for this, we're calling for some kind of control.

These are best practices in Brazil.

Two ending quotes to finish. This is an improper person to quote on the Internet. Chesterton is an English writer years ago. He said "we are learning to do a great many clever things with technology. Maybe the next great task will be learned when to do them or not to do them.

Another one, this is something Kissinger said.

I think the future of the Internet is to dissolve in the fabric of our everyday life.

Thank you.

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you, professor Getschko. That's an interesting introduction about the CGI's expert practice in Brazil. I think from the different part, different area, different level, different fields, practice that make the system, the principle norms more effective and wider to push the cyber farther.

Thank you.

I would like to welcome profess to give a few words.

>> It's my honor to be here. Since I'm the researcher on cybersecurity legal issues, I also have a small presentation on the data governance framework, legal framework, on China. As said in the beginning, the most important legal framework for cybersecurity in China is our cybersecurity law. So my short presentation will focus on cybersecurity law.

So basically, I do a little comparison. You can see that in cybersecurity law of China, the article deals with personal information mostly from article XL to XLIV. I compare these principles to OCED and principle in the GDPR. You can see there's a lot of similarity.

For example, OCED's principle accountability and GDPR's accountability, there's an expectation to protect the user's information. Article XLI, again, you see a lot of similarity, personal limitation, data limitation, storage little takes, lawness and transparency are all in our cybersecurity law.

Then, also, we have a mandatory breach notification. I think those requirements are not really often in many other country's law, personal protection law, and, also, we have a specific requirement on anonymized data, and we have an article to protect integrity and confidentiality of the personal data.

Article XLIII essentially gives the data subject in China the right to delete and the right to rectify. In this regard, we're not like the GDPR where there's sets of individual rights. We only have two sets of rights. The rights to access is implied by the right to delete and the right to rectify.

So, to summarize, essentially China put the individual user in the very center of the different stage of data processing. Like use of concession, you need to get consent on the way you possess and the way you store your data, you have to abide by the agreement with the user when you're not violating the agreement with the user, then the user got the right to delete and rectify. The way you have a security breach, you have to notify the user. Every step puts the user in the very center.

And, as we all understand, the article is not enough to fully specify all the detail requirement on personal data protection, the TC260, which received guidance from cyberspace administration in China worked on specifying the circle of data processing what the data requirements are.

On the left‑hand side, we have the personal information security specification, which is recommended to national stand‑up as specified.

The financial tie in 2018 May ‑‑ China emerged as Asia's prized leader because of the standard. We have all the laws and standards in place and different regulators start their enforcement campaign on the personal information protection. You can see that 2017, there's a campaign on app private policy review. The review continued in 2018. This year, CIC, MIT, minister of public security. They jointly announced a special campaign. Again, it's illegal collection and use of personal information by apps. So this campaign will last for a whole year.

So due to the time limits, I cannot give you more information on this, but I'm happy to continue this discussion.

Thank you, everyone.

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you.

>> Thank you for the kind invitation. I would like to thank the Cyberspace Administration of China and others for organizing this panel.

I had the cyber BRICS project there. It's a project we created a little more than one year ago, analyzing, mapping digital policies in the BRICS. So Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.

Basic consideration that stimulating this process is that although BRICS are meeting in 10 years and increasingly enhancing their cooperation, there's little research on digital policies in the BRICS and comparing the various approaches of the BRICS, and we deem that this is extremely interesting and meaningful, not only was there is no research on this so far but also because BRICS countries are home to 42% of the world population, 3.2 billion people. And if we assume that personal data are the most valuable resource, as we seem to assume, that means BRICS countries are sitting on the world's most valuable resource. That's one of the reasons why we have seen that over the past years but it's been increasing attention not only to digital politics and policy, but also to data protection regulations. So the three basic phenomenon that are enabling all the solutions as far as data analytics or machine learning, they're intimately intertwined and the expansion of connectivity, BRICS, four out of five of the BRICS countries are among the top five of the largest mobile Internet users population in the world. More than 1.6 billion individuals are connected in the BRICS countries, and the cost of cloud computing is decreasing for allowing processing of data at a cheap cost.

And the fact that people are connected via mobile smartphones and that Internet of Things is increasing and therefore sanctions are increasingly ubiquitous makes it even more easy to collect data that can be easily transmitted and processed. That's evolutions in terms of artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and, of course, machine learning, which are some of the most interesting things today.

Now, what is extremely relevant ‑‑ of course, if we speak about massive data collection and processing, is how this data collection and processing is regulated. What we have seen over the past couple of years, two, three years, BRICS have been advancing enormously their regulation, their national frameworks. I think a landmark event was the declaration of the BRICS summit in 2017 where they jointly agreed to promote jointly shared data protection norms, and, starting in 2017, we have had the major changes toward this 3.2 billion people around the world. In Brazil, only last year, as mentioned, a new data protection role has been approved. It's going to be created in the next month. In China, as was very well explained by the speakers, very sound framework for data protection is being formed. There's data protection rights that have been added to the code, which is an extremely interesting revolution. China is also updating code.

In Russia, Data Protection Act had been updated in 2017 addressing norms.

The Supreme Court has declared data privacy as a right. It's landmark case that's created a new fundamental right for 1.5 almost billion people but also has create collaboration of the new data protection framework that's going to be discussed in the Indian parliament. So almost 1.5 a billion people will have data protection in the upcoming months.

And last but not least, South Africa has created a new data protection regulator two years ago that's now implementing PoPI, Privacy Of Personal Information, Act. There's a lot of innovation in legal terms, but a lot of convergence.

So in a bizarre fashion, even in the lack of any formal treaty on how to regulate personal data, BRICS countries are somehow harmonizing their framework, rights, norms, because they're taking inspiration for what exists. The principles are almost homogeneously adopted by BRICS. They're all present in the frameworks for data protection.

Why is this so relevant? Not only because it provides new rights and a stable, critical framework for individuals, but it provides incredible trust in businesses. It legally foreseeable stable and predictable business environment. It really has the potential to change how BRICS countries proceeds in homes of innovation. Now, I cannot, of course, explain all the findings of the project in five minutes. Another session is starting in a couple of minutes, but I invite you to check our websites, www.cyberBRICS.info. And we have more that may be of interest for the participants.

Thank you very much.

( Applause )

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you, professor, for your introduction to the BRICS progress as data and cyber. There's strong details in the introduction. That's very interesting. Thank you.

And now I want to introduce associated professor of law from Singapore University of Management.

>> Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I appreciate the organizers to bring me here. I will be talk about governance and trade agreements. We see the rise of three digital kingdoms.

So if you look at it, data and trade agreement, I would argue you have to consider three key issues. First, they are the interests of the business firms. For the business firms, especially the big platform companies like Google and Facebook, what they want to see is the ability to move their data freely across the borders. That's why they're championing causes such as the free flow of information and prohibition on data localization requirements.

On the other hand, you have the users, the consumers. Privacy is also a major issue.

And the third main actor here is the government. Now, the government has two main concerns. The first concern is national security, especially those with regard to cyberattacks and so on.

There's three different actors and three different interests. That's why we're seeing the rise of different approaches to these issues.

Now, when it comes to the main platforms for data Internet governance and trade agreements, the most ideal location should be the WTO. This was started 20 years ago with the declaration on global eCommerce. But they were not able to make any progress up until the beginning of this year when a few WTO, around 76 WTO members, had the ability to negotiate. So, instead of the WTO, the current rules we see are mostly domestic, regional, and also prolateral rules.

So let's look at the three different digital kingdoms: The U.S., EU, and China.

For the U.S., the issue is free flow information across the border. You see the demands reflected in all of the free trade agreements that the U.S. has signed since the early 2000. So the first one started with but it started to become more and more mature. This is communicated in the TPP and the U.S. MCE agreement in which the U.S. basically listed these three major demands, first, free flow of information across the border, second, prohibition on data requirements, and privacy. No comprehensive privacy protection framework. In the U.S., what they have is patch work of laws which regulate privacy depending on specific sector. For example, they have laws, regulating privacy use concerning credit reports. If you're a consumer and you rent videos from blockbuster or if you apply for credit cards, then you would have such a privacy right. If you're not a consumer, you don't have such a provision right.

For the EU, the key here is privacy as evidenced by the GDPR. So the EU GDPR is very interesting in two ways. First of all, it is unlike the U.S. approach. The U.S., remember, as I said earlier, regulates this as a consumer right. In the EU, they have elevated privacy from a consumer right to a fundamental human right. So this means that so long as you are a human being, you automatically have such a right. It doesn't matter if you're a consumer for specific services, you automatically have these basic human rights of privacy.

And the second of GDPR is actual territory. The idea the you're a country and you want to sign a free trade agreement with the EU, you have to be recognized as being adequate to somewhat similar to the level of protection to the GDPR, and this ensures the reach of the GDPR to reach beyond the EU itself.

And China takes an entirely different approach. For China, as several speakers have alluded to earlier, the key here is cyber sovereignty or cybersecurity. China security is really the key here because the Chinese system is different from the rest. So there's no free flow of information. There are certain restrictions to what information can come in and so on.

With regard to privacy, China has only introduced law on privacy 10 years ago, but even then there are still a lot of exemptions for the government.

In 2017, a data localization requirements which requires critical information infrastructure to make sure that data will be stored locally. If you look at the trade agreements China has signed, China has been reluctant to include eCommerce digital trade issues. So far, only two FTEs include issues. China just upgraded with Singapore last month, and this also included digital trade, eCommerce type of issues.

So we see these as three different approaches. Why do we have the different approaches? There are two explanations. There are two interests at stake. Most U.S. firms, they were able to do so much exactly because there was a lack of government regulation. This is reflected in the domestic work of the U.S. where laws such as the Telecommunication Act explicitly states that the U.S. Government should ensure that the Internet remains affected by the federal and state regulations.

If you look at China, actually, they have different Asia Pacific approach. U.S. firms like Facebook, like Google, when they do digital trade, they do not sell any physical product. They only sell digital products. They sell this.

Chinese firms, if you look at the top 10 largest digital firms in the world, six are American firms. Four are Chinese firms. Alibaba and (?) That's why China kept referring to trading goods to facility by the Internet rather than digital trade, which is a total different concept.

Now, how about EU? As I mentioned, top 10 firms, EU firms are not featured on the list. Some argue that the GDPR is actually a new form of trade protection because EU does not have an advantage in this. So the EU wanted to use the GDPR to make sure that the American and Chinese firms would not move too far ahead.

Second, you also have a different regulatory philosophy. For the U.S., as I mentioned, there's a long mention of self‑regulation. For China, there's a long history of government intervention. This started from the very beginning, 1994, when the Internet first started. The Chinese government passed a law saying you can only connect to the Internet through government‑sanctioned gateways. You cannot connect to the Internet on your own.

For the EU, there's a strong history of protection of human rights because after the Second World War when we saw what happened in the Second World War, they wanted to prevent this from happening. That is why you have institution such as Europe (?) Which exercises on human rights.

What will the Internet be like? I think we'll see a fragmented future. In the WTO, even though negotiations have started, I'm not sure you would have reached really the type of comprehensive deal such as the U.S. would want. Instead, I think most likely you will reach the lowest common denominator. That is trade type agreements that is actually the one favored by China.

And with regard to privacy protection, you probably would see it reflected in domestic bilateral definitions as seen in the GDPR. That concludes by presentation.

Thank you so much.

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you, professor. I look your academic style.

So with the last speaker.

>> The first thing I want to address is we should not only concern with data itself but also the technologies like AI. Secondly, beyond formal institutions, I think the innovation is very important. The preconception to realize the global (?)

Welcome to the world Internet conference. We have this event each year at the end of October. This year, we have more than 1,500 parents and more than one‑third of them are foreign participants. We have 20 forums focusing on industry technology and social development and links to digital issues. More than 500 speakers. So welcome and I think it's time to meet people to share your views, to listen to different ideas, and to you know the community we share a future in cyberspace. Thank you. I recommend you to visit our website, www.wicwuzhen.cn.

Thank you.

>> LI YUXIAO: Thank you. I think after these speakers, we need to find a comprehensive solution for the data governance framework. This has its own measurement system and the new framework must be (?) The international community should discuss based on the mutual trust. I think that we have a lot of issues to discuss, and more important, we have a lot of things to do in the future in the data governance. The data resources are not only our resources but also belongs to the next generation of us and in the future. We should try our best to make the data space for interesting and useful.

So from now, I hope that in the future we can continue to communicate and discuss this resource not only in this platform but outside.

Thank you.

( Applause )