IGF 2019 – Day 4 – Raum I – WS 112 Assessing the Role of Algorithms in Electoral Processes

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Berlin, Germany, from 25 to 29 November 2019. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 



>> FLAVIA: Good morning, everyone.  Before giving the floor to our speakers, I would like to make a brief introduction.  There is a broad consensus on the risk exposure in the algorithm and various feuds such as bad seen education and culture.  Especially when it comes to political process, the spread and use of technologies may set specific tracks to democracy as you know.

Some of the facts already look and are discrimination, the compromising of freedom of expression and the actions which results by lab of the use of big data to drive this information campaigns.  Out of the topic has been widely discussed in many countries and IGF as we saw last year in Paris.  The outcomes haven't reflected the formulation of public policies and regulation capable to facing the challenge.

The revelations and Facebook over the U.S. presidential action result led to organization of a series of debates that culminated in publication of the guide Internet democracy and actions.  There is available in our website and in the production of proposition to the combat of this information in electoral process, which is about to be released in the current year.

The perforations point out several topics that deserve special attention.  Use of persona data guy the platforms made in Facebook, What's App, Google and YouTube.  They trigger the sending of target and explaining fierce and insecurity, vulnerability of others without transparency and disrespect to that data protections law significant market power of the platforms and they roll this in world markets.  Besides the suspects in 2018, Brazilian elections we noticed another factor that contributed to this information campaign.  Morgan 18 million Internet users have data sorted with 0 rating to access Facebook and what's app.  83% of classes D and E and 63% of classed C do it exclusively truth mobile devices according to statistics produced by CGIDR and therefore 0 rating played a central role in this information campaigns.  So market companies which supported the political parties use a situation and finance it that political campaigns using mailing of what's app to spread and counting on the fact that they could not have Internet access to verify receiving news.  Important highlights.

That is under judgment on superior electoral court in Brazil.  We know that there are important initiatives like the guideline for work sheet launch it by European counsel in April of this year or the work developed by OSCD focusing that can serve as guidance for regulators and policymakers.  But we also note that in parallel to these efforts in international treaties, TTIP, TEZA and TTP, personal data protection safe guards, more specifically data transfer rules and the position of rules for greater transparency and accountability in algorithm systems have been drastically reticent.  A group of that brings more than 35 any chosen in Brazil, which I am a member, has defended the need for developing co‑regulation frameworks with the platforms based on Internet principles, data protections law, consumer rights, marked by Internet, our constitution of Internet and the electoral so as to hold companies accountable for practices in electoral campaigns.  Finally, I went to highlight a recent piece of news.  They will not commercialize electoral propaganda while regulatory discussion on the issue are not matching enough.  They do not want to risk serving as an instrument for our specific practices that lead to misinformation and misuse of personal data.  We will ask him that they this real.  Make this initial consideration and I move to explain our workshop.  The workshop will be divided into three blocks.  In the first block, we will have two presentations of 10 minutes each one.  And first is Mr. Chris Marsden and Mr. Sergio Amadeu.  Chris Marsden is a professor from the University of Sussex.  And Sergio Amadeu from Sao Paulo Brazil.  Mr. Scott Cunningham is not able to participate here in our session.

In the second block, we will be open debate and we are following two questions.  What are the things following dimensions.  Transparency, sequency, audit and others.  Participants will be given 3 minutes to present their ideas.

And a third and final block, participants will be invited to discuss the following questions.  What regulatory and governance approaches can be implemented to regulate the size of algorithm and political campaigns?  Also three minutes to speeches.  Finally, I would like to thank everyone who have come here on Friday morning and thank especially Mrs. Lorena Joan, Olivia Bandera and Gustavo Brindy.  We ask to bring specific contributions.  I open the session giving the floor to Mr. Chris Marsden.

>> Chris Marsden:  Thank you, Flavia.  I want to thank my friends for inviting me back.  It always been incredibly useful to compare what you think might be two very contrasting countries, but which is actually a lot of similarities.  It is the extent to which fake news is distorting our democratic process.  I'm not sure that's good, but it is good compare.

I am talking about an article I wrote with Trisha Myers.  It was published by the European parliament this time last year.  I will say since this report, I have then gone on to work with Dr. Ean Brown that some of you know from Oxford.  Also visiting processor at reach CCI Africa in Capetown.  And looking at the Common Wealth and the way cybersecurity including this information has been corrupted and has affected elections cross the commonwealth.  That's a piece of work that is not yet public which will be soon.  I was presenting in the network of election observers who are updating their guidelines in order to acknowledge that observe coming from OSCE and so on need to update there are work to look at that information as a specific element of cybersecurity.  And this was an area of huge interest to the election of service.

I also want to acknowledge if I was in the United Kingdom, I would be part of the strike.  Pension is under threat again.  When I get into the UK, I will be sitting in a picket line.bi given that I'm here, I will carry on.

So this information falls in accurate information and as opposed to misinformation which is unintentional and will then be corrected.  If you provide misinformation that you don't correct, this make its misinformation.  We're looking at the study of content recognition.  There is information going into in detail, but it is the AI of speaking algorithm attempt to control content.  And one of the problems that we have is the algorithms are pros to false negatives and positives.  Very, very difficult to have natural language and ACR has more report and success in identifies bought accounts regard than specific instances in height speech.  This is a real problem.  And it's a very rapidly moving target this information.  For the report, we analyze 250 articles, papers and reports many of which were published that year.  Of course, this was published at a time about we were two years after the Trump election and the referendum in the UK.  We have a glorious opportunities in realtime in the f two to three weeks to watch the extent of this information can influence the UK general election because the rules have not been changed in the UK since the referendum.  So we still have a real two years of real wild west of this information in our elections to the points that last night preposterously a minister turned up to a party leader debate claiming he could act as a party leader and got himself filmed.

Facebook is at the center of this.  This is Mark Zuckerburg's empty seat from Brazil to Argentina from the Kingdom and other countries.  19 countries, 24 official representatives representing 447 million people.  One question:  Where is Mark Zuckerburg?  No turn up.

This is the chance of brickset happening in the weeks leading up to the election.  You will see at the bottom right, Joe Cox assassinated.  A British member was assassinated by a fascist sympathizer a week before 2016.  As a result of that election or rather the campaigning around the referendum was suspended for three dice or so we thought.  It was only in July 2018, two years later that Facebook was forced by the British parliament ear committee to reveal that they did not suspend campaigning for three days.  They spent loads of money on Facebook within 24 hours.  And you will see ‑‑ I can't see the slide up again.  Thank you.  And you will see the chance went down substantially.  This is the odds from the December bring firms who are always correct.  But they're incorrect in this case because even they hand't spotted the waterfall of money going into Facebook which we found out two years later.  The report from the British committee is highly critical of Facebook for its failure to be transparent with the committee over that two years period.  And the results of this is frog face individual achieving Brettset.  I want to concentrate on this graphic.  That is a trail of no one going in different directions.  You are recognized that Boris Johnson who is now our prime minister and Dominic Cummings who is his Chief Advisor and Michael Gove who was representing Boris and trying to get into it.  And actually a defunction subset of SCL, a much larger Group.  And you see Steve Bannen the U.S. far right figure.  Alexander Nicks, report Mercer who is funding a lot of these attempts and the swift blower.  And on the almost left, you see two students representing a sprint group called Knowledge.  It was meant to have students interested in Brettset.  They received many thousands of pounds the week before the election.  It never went to the Believe bank account.  It went to aggregate IQ, some was placing the ads in Facebook to them.  It went from Believe to aggregate IQ with it going from both Believe to Aggregate IQ.  You will also see some of the money from the democratic unionist party of Northern Ireland.  It is part of the United Kingdom and there is no requirement for transparency and political funding in Northern Ireland do you to all the history of mechanism.  They were spending a very large amount of money with aggregates IQ.  What a coincidence you may think.  Also a egregious supporting party.  So extraordinary things were taking place.  All of this has been brought to life bite U.K. parliamentary committee and all of this denied and they appealed all parties on this particular graphic certainly the LVU.  And the UK data protection authority have produced reports, very powerful reports telling the British parliament that our electoral laws are broken and must be reformed in order to have fair elections in the future, all of these reports have been responded to by government, something very, very close to contempt.  There has been no reform at the time.  You can spot your own country on that including Singapore, or if you have an island or France.  We're stuck in this way where we're experimenting using siops.  We're familiar with the fact the firm on military has been very softisticated and this is what we're doing.  I want to flag out this particular guy.  He makes YouTube into the most powerful recommender engine available.  If your kids are watching Jordan, Neil Morhand is the one to thank.  Here's a Canada family man who would not do this.  So I won't go through methodology, but I will say skip every ‑‑ Zuckerberg himself says we find it really hard to identify using algorithms, the fake news and other problems.  We're ‑‑ because this is a nuance linguistic challenge and, of course, humans are rather good at nuances and algorithms is a bad asset.  Let's just say legislators would not push into online or major (?)  My clock is not working.  So I hope I have two minutes left.  The paramount in the way we along at name and how this work informations.  It is not just literacy and no one has to do anything.  When you absolutely process and AI is finding this information and we need independent appeal to order platforms, you cannot deal with these things.  We need is to standardize and appeal processees and David K. on frame of expression has along the at appeal is that it is not simply by the governments or by platforms and transparency and this information techniques and we don't know what is happening.  Literacy initiatives but that is not saying educate the public.  Transforms have to be done by the platforms is certainly for us to be aiming to see what's happening in our social media feeds.  I went to Twitter and Facebook and others we can't do anything about that.

Wrapping up.  So it is about 3 that we should have independent appeal.  This is very much in line with what Flavia said.  They didn't cooperate or show how transparent they can be on their own.  It is time for governments to regulate directly, but to tell them you need information that we will need.  I will cautious just one thing, of course, my story from the U.K. reminds us the people who liked the rules about this election in elections are the parties that have just one the lost this make its particularly prone to regulatory capture and we must always remember that's the problem.  We have standardize notes and the appeal and we have a electric of evidence in this area.  So I will leave you with this shock and awe where we gave them six months options with what we should do and came out in favor of business we came down and are in face of the option 5 which is reggualations.  I will make the slight available and I thank everybody on the final percent of the thing.  You should give yourself a hand in the back.  So thank you for your attention.


>> NATHALIA SAUTCHUK PATRICIO:  Thank you, Chris.  We had communication problems and I ask you if you can talk in the second and third part of the session.  Now I will pass the floor to Sergio Amadeu and then we can hear you.  Thank you very much.

>> SERGIO AMADEU:  Good morning, everyone.  It's a pleasure to be here.  Life and exaggeration have always existed in politics.  Nowadays the problem becomes serious when misinformation becomes more relevant than that information.  That's happened in Brazil.

In 2018, 70% of Brazilians accessed the Internet and 6 chose 3% made it every day.

And more internet users 5 prepared to chose and so that to work meeting Facebook.  70% watched online videos and 92% use instant message applications including What's Up.  Considering this favorable Connective scenario, the companies took place mainly in the Internet and instead message application was the two chosen to this seminations of fame news.  In the Brazilian private market, the like retargeted and program (inaudible) networks already been use it 2018.  The use of bots, how to play it, and important real, the number of robots in this digital networks grow from 70% to 28 according to survey dubbed with 66 bought developer countries.  We had another feature powerful brands.  All of this is catered or employee owned digital platforms argumented by the algothm in Brazil.  And totally occasionally lies are always in electoral process in what are the license differences that within.  Internet users on average expand (?) main line through as much forms.  This has generated a large increase in the piece and this just action, 08 the range forced to use What's App on the most important part of revolution.  Groups of the business have been large sealed this company that rich, medial Brazilian.  Several information, distribution rights on what's happening elects concerns meeting and by (?)  It's just a consent.  Such as cell phone numbers that distributed content for more than 5,000 profiles.  Fact to check in Groups, play it and important hold in exposing waves of this information.  But they will reach only those second of clear beat defend more democracy.

Algorithm detection of this information is precarious and dangerous.  It's not all content can be checked, we think the network, it requires research and work.  Algorithm mapping of this information and given the network can be done.  It wasn't done in Brazil.  The article Go Rhythm Process of Modulation can be summarizing as the control of what is seen by neighbors of an align association network has been heat or by third party which have disnumeration of the platform Fly Digital Process.  After the elections, by law with companies that increase this initialization profiles but as the case of augment case.  Fake profiles were created by companies and groups known as digital malicious.  Here define it as results and are committing violence content.  That could happen and can be detected by algorithms.

The proceeding hate‑groups use this information.  Use this information as their political communication structures it.  We will not be able to reduce the defenses, in fact of this information to democracy and we'll document on the process is not as continuous.  It is actually driving and work relate by a specific algorithm.  How would you call by the information in the face of necrological ‑‑ they can set digital video, a person who was not at the place or the image was captured.  It can create moving base from a photo because the algorithm and the text biometry and very acute athlete.  There are two problems.  The before is how to detect it and the second is the effect of creating distressed of two.  Thank you.


>> FLAVIA LEFREVE:  We'll put in the slides and the questions to Olivia, Lorena, Jeep, and thanks, give us a thought about the issues.  Thank you.  Beady, you can start?

>> So, um, so I come from ‑‑ I worked at the intersection of FX history and technology.  My work has been based on trying to understand how or what this session impact of algorithm systems is.  So, um, so when I look ‑‑ I need to understand the technical affairs, but when we talk about algorithm systems, we talk about social technical systems.  So you can understand the technique to reach out the contests and which it is embedded.  And that serial consent does have a lot of usual.  Not only on the way how this techniques are programs but also on how humans ‑‑ the hospital update at this time of the country.

When we talk about the systems using social media, those are learning systems.  So this means that they modify and are modified through the data and through the reactions of the users.  So it's not a static situation where you would say there's only Facebook and other peoples ‑‑ mothers, friends and the actors that are influencing these keep of systems is way bigger than just the developers at Facebook and Twitter.  It is also users and also the societal within those systems are using.  That means from Facebook being used in Brazil limit by the books and will help uptake of those technologies is different.  And also then social economic income.  Depends a lot on which type of economic incentives you have to use.  All the types need to be important to what the impact is.

We talking about a phenomenal that is (?)  We talked about propaganda, strategies too and playful individual places.  We think studies in the pre‑internet aera.  We developed communications and, there's a lot of scholarships that has been done decided to be used.  Now, when you are trying to make a bowl, you need to justify what keep of methodology and if you using a rim one we need to add just nie why you are treasuring differently.  So let me still you how perfect is being analyzed in the cal log sector.  Indiana sector, and scabbing sciences was high (inaudible) and output to make neat thinking, if you see something that is going to have an impact on you and this claim of role, the theory was read at the very beginning of the 12th reason.  That theory gentlemen.

>> Because we don't know that it is that simple.  If you take a look at the effort and made to influence and to change a whole system, it started by creating a very complex narrative that would not only send to poltics, but also to culture and do sports.  It goes by Freud and those medicals and the majors would survey each other and coast and tell the government.  It was Rocklex.  It would lead you to the assumption that everyone that is what would do to say that is into change and your oversystem because in my professional space or private connections in my spare.

Now, this therapy, what you look at when you try to understand to what degree it is being spread and it is having an impact.  It was about how much (?) by way that this is happening.  How many people are really setting it or thankful for it?  What we think is not whether people are not around.  How much diverging opinions are you able to see?  Actually right now, most of the studies is that are trying to see that there is an impact using the hypodermis theory which is not considered a (?)  And accounting things that present Ghana school would never sustain.  The scholars time from communication histories and history I am starting to analyze automatic what is happening the internet since 2016.  I'm talking about school.  Do you think it stands for Union University, bravo, a huge range of things.  I can do that afterwards.  So I would really help to see Singapore belonging to a network of 140 sciences.  We have never, know, again robust the other thing is that because feels so complex and even though you may not have it and from our friends come in.  We think our legal live is way more complex than our just mobiles.  We also interact with another.  So even though we might see everything here online that seems to confirm what we think.  It's the only factor that influences what leads us to both.  By the way, what we have done in the studies right now that people interacting with this named.  The people that are Leslie like to issue able by memory scientist.  Thank you.  I give the floor now to you.

>> Good morning, everyone.  Thank you for the addition and we can ‑‑ so I have three sets that would be helpful.  I have 10 minutes.  That's it?  Okay.  Okay.


Okay.  Yeah.  Um, my leagues clear will explore the driven of the electoral office.  I crank to repair inevitable to our society.  As I seem to get away from the questions would do something.  So, we have the problem of support that using private data pass.  We will only make sense CEO economics and several weeks.  You are still not trying.  (?)  In order for us to find for recommending, it is important to know, understand how it is known in another way to a set in result.  This is how far the example legal latest with a fine N action and where we move out into tech staging especially.  They should be comfortable.  And at this point, allow me two codes.  The this one, understanding is a good thing.  It's the very promotional for (?) and I think another point of going is related to my Samors and new techniques.  In the history of science and technology, the injured had obviously participated in standing.  This is (?) a book.  The second one let's stop helping to find a single instead in Lewis as much that that is able.  The complexed when you talk about cover jobs it was just the director of research.  As you can, it was for Google and Facebook as such things.  I agree to this conference all docket workshops that it will ‑‑ the given result was achieved and we have severe social and political implications and it's important to view scripted standards that are written as a fundamental requirement for making the rhythms.  We will face by decision of algorithm and responsibilities.

>> FLAVIA LEFREVE:  Thank you, Gustavo.  Professor Scott?

>> PROFESSOR SCOTT:  Now I'm a processor of political science.  Now while in the Netherlands, you walk the second chamber about the roles of algorithm in policy.  I thank you all here today just to reflect with you about whether in the U.S. election and, ah, as we rely by time of the speakers.  The evidence is inconclusive that specific is targeted and innovation.  Data was stolen from the democratic national convention regarding election data.  Citizen faction.  There were social media efforts made and then they were targeting elect woman grow until David surprised him.  There was a 95% chance that Trump would get elected.  So it wasn't an out of the bounds possibility.  What is concerning is we have very margins stakes in Valmania and basically what happened here that is of more of importance is the use of citizens data for political service and the use of algorhithyms to try and keep the note.  What seems to be the factor is to disadvantaged, Chris Lodge did is cobble, but it is quite easy to vary.  I'll leave it at that.  Thank you very much.

>> Flavia, make sure for consideration.

>> Thank you, everyone.  I am at the office of the organization that work for specific expression not misdemeanor and interactive rights and the internet understands it is certainly to as democracy.  Last where we followed the same by technology in the electrons.  We release this information that contains counter on revolutions for arguing device and in this first addressing, I want to highlight some issues influencing of Internet, the dominant business model of Internet on them.

The second elections, well, you know that's one of the plain forms is massive use of data.  Towing and enlessly use and so it was this or for propagation of ideas in the evening of the applications.  In the case of political marketing, it is critical to name that and in order to break this logic is a section that the rights to personal data are considered in a list of recommended rights.  There is a reasonable dimension called By One.

The second point I would like to highlight is the spans of reaction.  This harms the full economy based on information they received which has a greater rut service defense back.  We need to quick size as well.  The 30 participate is that we fight this information that's apart of the process.  With more information, so it is essential to talk and getting that service.  It is related to just the depression quiet game.  It didn't need to come back and promote it to the 4 point.  That's it.  Thank you.

>> GLAVE:  He gives us any explanation.

>> I am from Hong Kong and I've been listening in to the discussion of this information and the fact it has on locations situation.  The situation we can is a little bit than what you have been discussing.  Well, impact and the prevalence and the widespread use of misinformation is very much initiation, but the source is somewhat different.  It is from not ‑‑ some other (?)including the U.S. election and probably interfere go our situation as well.  Our situation I think including in the very next election was held on Sunday.  Despite Preston's of lots and lots of information, I say that the result was not that much influenced by this information.  Now having said that, it doesn't mean the problem is not there.  You might report that.  We took thousands and accounts that were guess to be controlled by China stayed media.  And at that point actually, I could be derived that a lot of information,  they were all set to the finish that.  There's been conflict against the government and more.  Interestingly, this information is not as necessary people influence this views about Hong Kong.  So I just want to be cautious that is the problem can be commitment‑facts and tell us these problems ‑‑ what needs to be (?) as well.

And finally one last point is that in Hong Kong, we are a little bit disadvantaged in the fact that we still not have a domestic fat chat location.  That is one area that we're trying to address with recommendations and so far.  So right now, we are even a bit behind other Asian countries or ridge in that regard.  Even for some of the social media companies, they would need to have partner developers in doing fat check to work with.  That is also one area that we're trying to work you.

>> Thank you.  I asked if Mr. Hammond wants to make any considerations about the issue?  No?  Okay.

>> Chris Marsden:  The written have very different problems in other parts of the world and I think we need to have claiming difficult for what we will do the rest of the world.

I want to make a point which is you will often hear governments and politics say you can show us the approach that in this information has ranged election results so that we have to act.  As far as remembering this information online as we pointed other is part of a much broader media environment and studies for supports.  I very much take to the points about the sociotechnical content with information.  We have never been able to conclusively prove that it's (?)  So therefore, the assumption is that we have to prove that online information is swinging an election.  Is it across an impossible barrier to overcome.  And those who say they show me the proof.  No, it's impossible barriers to understand.  Even in the U.S., the estimates are that cable new provides companies  with one to two measure rights.  I have advertising.  This we love never ‑‑ I will bring an election because humans are more complicated than that.  It can be done.  So anyone who raises that, we're at 1, 2 saying we're never going to give everything away.

>> The floor is open to participants.  Anybody wants to talk?

>> Thank you, good morning.  I am a journalist from Brazil.  I work with Olistenia and Flavia and digital rights and communications rights in Brazil.  I would like to ask if you can go a little bit further on the left.  I think you mentioned it in your last intervention.  The feel that four are the people less that has less just to believe and I don't know if I got it right, but I would like you to go a little bit further to ask you to go if you could.  Please talk a little bit it on output.

>> What I say is the feel most likely to interact with a critital influence by them because they already understand a page known to them for years since they were a baby?  Information is is it appealing to convince you that this our system and give you information linking U.S. service.  It will also ‑‑ we had this conversation before doing cold car amongst.  There is this very well known A‑‑ that's really the name.  And he tries ‑‑ he summarizes the note that people understand have gotten, you basically come to the conclusion that the function of this Starbucks information strategies is not to sense the idea.  An identification ‑‑ I am discouraged of nomination.  Obviously that affair to have opened up this yourself and the same they do obviously into the region.  It's not about the facts.  They know it's about the fact and if I use facts to counter that position, you will push them in to make.  This is what was found out on those states; however, there seems to be actually the equal.  I think that is one of the interesting technologies suit we are seeing with fact checking and people contenting to the hot waters.  It's not a problem that is changing people with extreme positions and their positions.  It is fascinating that I believe that have ‑‑ see it's really interesting to also to try to gather the knowledge that we already had and try different discussions we have if we want to have a different log, while I play a role.  In order to a fairly different content and a fairly different situations, they can be exchanged under this information that's an identity.  That is not the level where you exchanges positive.  This is why fact finding is not really helpfull, in my opinion.  And according to what I see.

>> Thank you.  I am a member of the e‑mail of the association that they're doing research to announce fiber security policies.  So I have some questions about the information governance because of March identity liked the consideration of information work seem with some information and the risk of violations and abuses the desire.  For example, I come from the south of Italy and this incredible desolation violence is going on or so.  Political silence, policymakers are not protected.  So these augmented people have access to augmented technologies just like sold microplenty.  Sorry.  We have them.  So I'm asking for help or and it's possible to interact them in the answers or can DABB.  We have the power to take action and avoid different factors of help write the violation.  The rich of sitting those getting involved, which can happen with the mine goal education.  They went to target groups of people and (?) so I'm afraid.  There's so much indifference and lack of capacity.  So I'm helping so we could in the future protect democracy, human right, there is huge as a mean to announce of life for everybody.  So to not explore whatever.  GCP has a (?) to explain and people who have no taxes too or just (?)  And I doesn't realize.  Thank you very much.

>> Okay.  Anybody more?

>> Hello, Martin.  It is legal and endorsement and I just thought I would add a contribution to the fact that two years or three years ago we had elections and very strongly, myself things will receive an e‑mail and text messages on their own causes as you probably know now, this is quite visual.  It is the center of fiasco where it was discovered at that time that shouldn't and domestically as a used for a beginning environment.  Bigger countries of the world wide.  And in.  Which is will election of nap it want know available to all political pastes and insurance so we are very interested in eye levels and transaction.  Of course ‑‑ that type of profiling.  So it's quite interesting to see.  We are still trying to find.  We do a entertain international.  People are no bremnin that thing trying to understand what is the Camridge analytical and it is going away.  It explains data if it was connected and used and then targeted.  So I thought I would mention that.  It is very interesting how companies are using data and my search so ‑‑ Thank you.  Lorena once ‑‑

>> I have a plane to catch.  This is not news.  It's real.  ACL voted the suppression techniques.  Knowing the different parts in different ways, I know we may be coming to your island someone.  So please e‑mail me Chris would know type and tall.  It was really interesting.  I apologize.  Is this, thank you much with and not John Lorena?

>> Lorena add on the system of damage first thing, come practice in December and I am in a panel.  It is just something some of you so I go sent metrics and then at the ‑‑ upon was developed by some other words.  This is well known point boost like you have seen policy.  That is called craneiologist 4.0.  That is not science.  The future will give you a result gauze the computer also gives them to correlate with one with zen.  Does not mean that outpit is sound and makes sense.  And so that's the thing with psyche so metrics.  The down is, we currently and the consent is that it provides is a 81 of how people work, how can be faced.  It's way more complicated.  If you have an, target you will done creeping ‑‑ this is from things that have not convinced you and change your mind, but it come ‑‑ we have 1.4 advertisements in the face of electoral campaigns we've seeing by the voters on 2015, force that's not much.  Also Facebook and it's part of their economic USB.  They have the power to change things.  But it's a very good idea was how we worked in a privacy setting.  Chris, you let please.

>> I am Chris Tover.  I work for Gil.  We have it twice and there is candidates on election campaigns in China and in Hong Kong pro‑crime stuff.  I would like to ‑‑ there is a lot of focus on criticized political advertising.  CEM there was a about that.  I think the issue that there is social communication forms weather it is what you post, whether it is automated box, fake accounts simply about normal content.  Phenomenal content to go rhythm and have.  From the point of view from a class roots driven appropriate a resource low funded, political party within a has a very smart then to complain.  Sometimes paid at the bottom already a huge influence and a huge presence using the other non‑paid algorithms.  I wanted to raise this point and whenever there's any discussion about understanding and regulating this, we should think about the non‑paid aspect of social media.  Thank you very much.

>> FLAVIA LEFREVE:  Thank you.

>> I want to add some additional nuance that really piggy backs on some of the comments made here as well as address one of the points that was made about Chenging.  I agree in general that fact, how things that I have and I don't mean to say this in an adversarial way, content or content on platforms what I hear from our members is that after say a piece of this information and defunctioned or that dental achievements.  It doesn't get elevated.  So lost in times, you will end up seeing.  If it is we're facing it and for us, one of the best anecdotes with information and misinformation quality is (?)  Local news is disappearing and what is the pressure?  We ask need longer fundamental.  More, when there has been regular and so what does it mean?

>> With also need to prioritize media, within these kinds of conversations and with that about cool patting information by getting those positive narratives takes more to invest support.  Thank you.

>> Thank you, everyone.  Olivia, we should discuss this go the regulations that takes out the better and I went to talk a little bit about this.  The IGN to single was is that true?  It is to solve the rouse it to can the ago ‑‑ they commit to income states.  This perspective is hide and I heard ‑‑ I didn't hear a lot about those questions this respect said it is expose to implement by company companies themselves and internet more and more companies that use personal data to harm high pressure and Latin America they have others discussing to rival in that we know is necessary and impossible much an alternative both to the calculation and flat Pope, cold front tunability.  We report story environment is credibility in risk assessments and can think to this requisition model, I plot technical solutions by following international human right to such as (inaudible) account is the leader of in processed and Benny, there's a whole entire wonderful and other pumps are working on that that happens a specific standard and so the aim stood limited to the power of major Internet networking and prevent tensor suspect.  The document are wean so this really is eco united right in the middle.  I want to invite you to read the document on the website and continue to work with this device.  It's the X.  Thank you.

>> I would like to also put attention into a right financial not in these and make it clear.  See this is to prevent things to participate in the elections, right?  You guys are now being implemented in.  AH.  And with that, it's been deciding who can vote and who cannot vote.  It is not in the system or that is, of course, flight to this story issue component.  You can have digital component with this already existed regulation specific ‑‑ it is being depit even make it more fortunate.  And those technologies besides in additional, R&A they do not come from the U.S. and they do not come from China in the majority.  I was 70 ‑‑ 70% of those technologies come from the European system.  The system in Kenya.  That is being hired the digital identity system that is now being used.  We will include a lot in Kenya.  Is all boys with technology under that?  Key yes.  There are mope zones by Google and Amazon.  So if this world, there is a return range we are not talking about that in the bottom ground for many of the countries that we think to be emotionally and more upon it is not like that.  To delivery testing so I think that it is important to not only focus on other customers PLE.  Look at what was bought all the rip when I look at the have an 18s to development and proceed with electoral campaign.  And these might have a bigger ‑‑ a legal impact who can vote within which conditions and this type of technology is not being researched.  I have not seen any studies about that.  And those are the people creating the legal and administrative reasons for voting.  I think that we are going to be very much surprised when we start unveiling that type of perspective.  Thank you very much.


>> FLAVIA LEFREVE:  Anybody?  Okay.

>> I have a question.  Talk go the democracy and not only the electoral process.  This is a few part of total democracy.  During the riots in Latin America, Chile, Ecuador ‑‑ that ‑‑ in Venezuela first.  Not in Ecuador.  The (inaudible) (inaudible) wall strength in gov first; some hashtag born in another country even occur how we work with that think the (inaudible) of another country being the demo credit 19 life in gear, we were almost home.

>> Ringardo Corredor and also from communication and media, agencies are playing in this whole thing.  When is that they are ‑‑ to execute the thing.  Or in many cases, these companies offer them services for them to use.  So it seems to me they play a key role in this situation and I was wondering where the thoughts were with people here and the panel.

>> Sorry but ‑‑ you, you, okay.  The last one because our time is finishing.

>> Hi.  My name is Haldo from Honduras.  Targeting particular human writes defenders.  And that's in political position.  People in particular, they make this seem they target the ten most close collaborators of the person and they are heavily customized.  And I think of the people tried to love being associated with the person that's targeted, but we have very objects.

>> She had a really great leader killed in 2016.  Before she was killed, they began this kind of campaign and that's this because there is a kind of misinformation that is working and very real.  The effects and reality.  Question for Flavia because she was saying that they weren't working in the real.  This is also eye and there are people trying to rich to organize posts because this information can (inaudible) in there and the woman hat a lot of budget bowl you see one of the Groups of the operationally they have really great budgets for finishing the session.  And I want to thank you all for the important contribution that I hope help us to face this enormous challenge that all the countries represented here have.  And then thank you very much and good session for you too.  Thank you.