IGF 2020 – Day 10 – NRI Main Session: Role of the Internet in Emergency Situations

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the virtual Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), from 2 to 17 November 2020. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 




   >> ANJA GENGO:  Officially, and for the record, good afternoon from Geneva.  Good morning, good evening, depending on where you are.  I want to thank you for joining the NRI's Main Session.  This has been a tradition at every Annual IGF Meeting since 2016 the Annual Meeting in Mexico.  My name is for the record Anja Genco, and I work for the IGF Secretariat, mainly with the colleagues that are running the national, regional, subregional.  This is the main session of the NRIs being organized completely by NRIs in bottom‑up open and collaborative manner.  Focused on the role of the Internet in emergency situations.

Before I give the floor to our dear co‑moderators, Ms. Mary Uduma and Mr. Flavio Wagner.  It is very sad and shocking and unexpected to have to say that happened during this Annual IGF Meeting, makes this meeting different, makes this main session different, sad.  But at the same time, we are moderated by the great legacy that has left behind our dear colleague and friend, Ms. Marilyn Cade.  Many of you know Marilyn and I think she does not need any introduction.  Marilyn was endorsed to actually co‑moderate with Flavio this session, and unfortunately, we were informed during the IGF meeting that Marilyn has passed away.

It's a great loss for not just for the NRI's Community to which she gave just a strong support throughout the collaborative work of throughout the years of the NRIs, but also to the entire Internet governance ecosystem.  She is deeply missed but she will never be forgotten.

In honor of the legacy of Ms. Marilyn Cade in honor of our life, I ask all of you for a minute of silence.

Thank you.  Thank you very much.  With this I would like to give the floor back to our dear co‑moderators, Ms. Mary Uduma will open the session, and Mr. Flavio Wagner will introduce the topic with our distinguished panel today and goals we want to achieve in the next 90 minutes.  Mary, please, you have the floor.  Mary, I don't think we can hear you.  If Mary has issues, she did inform at the beginning, then I'm going to ask Flavio.

   >> MARY UDUMA:  Can you hear me?  Can you hear me?

   >> ANJA GENGO:  We can hear you.

   >> MARY UDUMA:  All right.  Okay.  Good morning, good afternoon, good evening, good night, everywhere, wherever you are joining from.  This is Mary Uduma from West Africa IGF.  I am the Coordinator, and as we have heard from Anja, this is the NRI Main Session that we normally held during the IGF, during every IGF we have this NRI Main Session.

And for this year, I have myself as Co‑Moderator.  As she said, it would have been Marilyn Cade, but in her honor, I'm here standing in.  And the Moderator is Flavio from Brazil.  And the order of the speakers from all of the NRIs from Anja will be showing them, and they will be making interventions as a topic that we have today is the role of Internet in emergency situations, the role of the Internet in emergency situations.

We welcome you all to this Main Session organized by the NRIs in an open, bottom‑up consultative manner across all NRIs and will focus on concrete practices in which digital technologies can help people in emergency situations, such as the COVID‑19 pandemic.

We will hear from NRIs coming from different parts of the world, reflecting good regional balance as well as diversity in views on the session's topic.

We note that the speakers will speak for only three minutes, please.  We have four blocks of this program, and the first one will last, you know, it will start from now and end aren't 16:55, and then Flavio will take up that, my colleagues, Flavio from Brazil IGF, he will do a better introduction of himself, and when you speak, please speak slowly to the moderators and interpreters will be able to interpret and the captioner.

Again, you can raise your hands, you can also type in your questions in the Q&A page or you can chat.  Please, every voice is important and as we share will also learn and take back to our countries.

There will be polling, and when the polling comes up, please make sure you participate.  I think that's what I need to say now, and I hand it over to my Colleague Mr. Flavio Wagner to continue with the program.  Thank you very much.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Mary and Anja.  It's an honor to be here Co‑moderating with you the session, and we of course miss very much our dear friend, Marilyn Cade, she should be us in the session because she was important in the NRIs so this session is in her honor also.

So, let's move then to the first block, and we have a poll for you.  We will have a poll at the beginning of each of the four blocks of this Main Session, and the polls will remain there until the end so that you can respond to them when you wish, but please engage with us and respond to the polls.

So, this first session is the first block on the Internet for world resilience, so emergency situations such as the COVID‑19, showed that the Internet place a central role amidst restrictions such as in remote work and study, personal communication, service delivery, and so on.

In situations like this, did the Internet make your communities more resilient, and how?  So, this is the first question we have to our speakers, and we will have here as discussants of this first question, Mr. Lucian from the France IGF, and miss Isabelle from Colombia IGF, and Mr. Kusa will from the IGF.

The first poll on the screen, please.  And then let's start with Mr. Lucien Castex, so please, Lucien, the floor is yours.  Three minutes, please.

   >> LUCIAN CASTEX:  Thank you, Flavio.  Good afternoon, and good mornings, everyone.  Well, I'm Lucian Castex, Co‑Chair of the French Governance Forum and Representative for Public Policy of AFNIC, and Member of the MAG.  As we're in a Plenary Session of Global IGF, I will switch to French.

During this crisis we have heard a very important role and we continue to act in such a way so that we could learn and study.  The situation in France is obviously very tense and it's also very urgent.  We have to take up very serious and sanitary measures and started in March of this year.  As you know, we have a new quarantine which is introduced all over the country.  Digital technologies as well as data play a very important role today in terms of the fight against the pandemic.

It will take place with respect for fundamental human rights and for the preservation of our fundamental values.  What we discussed is certainly a question of following our contracts, contract tracking, as well as checking whether or not it tampered with fundamental personal freedoms and liberties, and at the heart of the French philosopher, he spoke much about the certain approach to human being and this is also something in the center of our attention.  We try to act in such a way so that we could shape the society in a way to where Internet plays a crucial role.

With the occurrence of COVID‑19, the question of Internet as a space which should also be a tool to solve different problems came up.  The French IGF, the French NRI has very important role and makes up with many members and now we have very different problems in France.  For example, how we teach students at the university, how educational programs are being conducted, and how different technologies and programs are conducted and they service the purpose of a number of different communities.  As far as the French NRI is concerned, we really realize that we are going to divide into different segments, and during this session in October, we started to think about the polarization of Internet and workshops organized about their responsibility online and such workshops are also going to be organized in the future.  The idea behind this is to think very deeply about this particular subject.  There are three issues which came up in connection with these discussions.

The first thing is connected with digital sensitivity and it's connected with sanitary emergency.  It is connected with the new forum in which different electronic devices are used.  New services come up, there is a total new manner of communication which is why the spread among, and all of these are very much connected with various environmental challenges, and finally we also cannot forget about the different questions connected with the whole territory around us, and Internet is in the very center of different activities that we're involved in.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  From the Columbian IGF, please, Isabel, the floor is yours.

>> ISABEL:  Hi, everyone.  Hello to fellow families and everyone joining us in the discussion.  I am the Managing Director for Ministry Information Communication Technology of Colombia and thank you to the Internet Governance Forum for this invitation.

It's absolutely true when we say that the information of the Internet is an enabler for the economy and activity in different countries around the world.

In Colombia the 96% of the companies are really small and micro‑small.  And before pandemic, just 12% of the companies had had a digital process for the productivities of the business.  However, the Colombia Government has been public policies and facilitate the different technological tools that allow our companies to be more competitive and they can consolidate throughout the pandemic.

An important example about the public policies are the legal instruments of the digital transformation and the cybersecurity.  The companies without taking into account the size of the organization.  They begin the digitalization of the process and the strategies for increased sales, the customer and the financial results.

In the other hand, about intelligent logical schools from the Ministry of Information Communication and Technology of Colombia, we are giving to the companies that don't have any presence in the Internet, a special kit, one totally free, a hosting of 1 gigabyte, 3 corporate email accounts and a web page for increased the benefits of their business.

In Colombia we understand that the Internet is the most important tools and strategy for overcoming the crisis generated by the COVID‑19.  In Colombia, we are working in this moment to increase the connectivity in all of our territories.

Right now, just 50% of the families in Colombia are connected, and we want to connect 20% more in 2022.  Actually, it is the principle issues about the digital policies in Colombia.  All of our strategies are around achieving that the people in Colombia can use the Internet for education, for business, work among other important things for the society in Colombia, for the citizen in Colombia.  They're very important themes for the government is to get better life for Columbian citizens through the promotion of the access to the Internet.  Thank you, everyone.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you for your intervention, Isabel.  Let's move to the third speaker in the first question, Mr. Quasai from the Arab IGF.

>> QUASAI ALSHATTY:  Let me start the intervention remembering our dear colleague, the late Marilyn Cade, resting her soul to rest in peace.  I'm honored to join this session with this wonderful audience and panelists to talk about such an important issue which is the role of the Internet in emergency situations.

There is no doubt that the Internet proved to be the most critical important tool for us within the unprecedented pandemic that we experienced since the beginning of this year, where we were confined to our geographical location and we were unable, due to health issues, to move around whether for business or leisure or meeting family and colleagues.

There is no doubt that the Internet helped to ease this limitation and to overcome it, whether in having our essential needs, whether it is in logistics, whether in socially interacting with our colleagues and friends and family members, or running our businesses.

Although, we have direct broadcasting like TVs and radios, we were mainly seeking our information from the Internet and the Internet was the main channel for us of communicating and outreaching and to receive information about the pandemic or the situation of let's say the curfews or the situation of our businesses, or hearing the news about it, or the news about the situation of COVID nationally or regionally or globally.

So, the Internet proved to be the main tool for that, and in such case, like in Kuwait.  And because of the important of this tool for government to send its information to view the information and selection to the public or for other businesses and for the communities.  The government, for example, subsidizes the access to the Internet during the months of March and April, whether mobile or fixed lines, for the capacity of 5 gigabytes and that's including 5G access, and this is to give all the access and possibility of access for everyone in order to receive information, whether it's from government, health services, or try to acquire their necessities and run their businesses.

Many trends, the new trends have been set.  We are working remotely right now and we get used to working remotely and running our businesses remotely, and let's say buy and sell remotely, and acquire our main or basic needs remotely, communicating with friends and family members whether they are close or remotely, and some of these trends will not be only during the COVID‑19 pandemic.  Some of these trends will be set as permanent trends because we get used to it and notice how practical it is.

For example, online meetings ‑‑

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Could you please conclude, as we're running out of time, please.

>> QUASAI ALSHATTY:  Some of these trends will remain as main trends and go beyond the COVID‑19 situation.  It will be permanent trends, for example collaboration online, meeting online, and meeting with business partners, or even the logistic services, this will be permanent trends during or which will go passed the pandemic of COVID‑19.

The Internet has proved to be a crucial tool to us, and the most important out beating by far other means of communication like direct broadcasting TVs and radios, and I'll stop there and thank you.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Quasai.

The COVID‑19 emergency is exacerbated a number of digital policy issues, so our next question to our speakers is, which issues were particularly relevant in your communities in this regard?  And we have first Ms. Tanara Brazil IGF.  Tanara, please.

   >> TANARA LAUSCHNER:  Good morning, everyone.  I am the coordinate for the Multistakeholder Organizing Committee of the Brazilian IGF, which is held annually since 2011.  The year of 2020 has been a challenging for the Internet in Brazil and for the country as a whole.  And since the beginning of March with the rise of coronavirus cases in Brazil, people began being quarantined and social distancing became common language, and this with more people at home, Internet infrastructure began being pushed more than usual, forcing a rise in traffic.

Several other countries have done, Brazil has also acted and applied measures to mitigate inherent to the period of severe conditions posed by the coronavirus outbreak.

Seeking and leverage the resilience of Internet in network in great demand for traffic.  Government authorities convened several different stakeholders, including big telecommunication providers and task forces to design and apply measures to face the new challenges posed to the national infrastructure.

On a positive note, Brazilian connectivity infrastructure also realized upon a broad ecosystem of Internet exchange points, it spread all over the country, and designed to handle heavy broadband traffic, while the Internet in Brazil faces a traffic increase, the Internet exchange point operated by the Brazilian network information center, have been dealing well with peaks over 11terabytes per second.  And also powered fake news and information, and the pandemic made clear the Internet plays as a central role in situations of tough restrictions.  People need to be well connected to have access to update information mitigation measures, public authority guidance, and so on.  This access also shows the complex issue of dealing with disinformation in a time when citizens need to be oriented to help society overcome challenges.

In this sense, several individuals have been raising lots of concerns about the disinformation crisis in the country.  The Brazilian Congress is now debating a draft bill that tries to mitigate the spread of fake news and misinformation.  Nevertheless, experts and stakeholders have been raising concerns about the risks that this proposal may cause.  Especially with regards to freedom of expression, communication, privacy, and data protection, as well as innovation and business models.

Finally, on behalf of the Brazilian NRI, I would like to share condolences for the passing of Ms. Marilyn Cade, her legacy will not be forgotten.  Thank you.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much.  Let's move to Jennifer Lopez from Panama IGF.  Jenifer, please.

   >> JENIFER LOPEZ:  Hi, everyone.  Thank you, Flavio.  As my colleagues said before the COVID‑19 pandemic has remarked an importance of open and transparent governance, access to information, and ethical standards related to privacy, and data are aspects to consider before, during, and after an emergency.

Panama has made significant progress in the utilization and is in the phase of identifying several challenges and opportunities in things such as infrastructure, Internet penetration, especially human resource, public policies, regulatory framework, update to help close the existing digital divide.  As a result of the impact coronavirus has on the lifestyle we had, we must work from home due to quarantine, however not the entire population has equipment or Internet service required to do so.

Just Law 126 began to apply establishing and regulating teleworking in the Republic in Panama and elements of the labor code.  It is a great achievement from the COVID‑19 pandemic and finally which helped to update our labor code with the use of information and communication, technologies, and international trends in the new digital age.

The state of emergency caused by the pandemic on data resulting in deployment of measures to protect citizen's privacy and prevent attacks on their cybersecurity.  The development of applications focusses on the revolution of the pandemic and security involved in the polling and private sector was high as efforts were mostly directed to the financial sector and telework.  The threat to cybersecurity increased with interactions.  Electronic and administrative site, Panama.gov was established as soul portal for platforms established by public entities for the execution of online procedures.

In addition to their presentation and follow‑up by us users.  And Law 144 of April 15 considers the rules for the protection of personal data and limits public servants’ access to sensitive user information.  The government created agencies such as the national of information privacy and direction of innovation and technological information facilitating in the digital government modernization and responsibility for the formulation and implementation of innovation.

It also provided that public entities should include within their annual budget the funds needed for the fulfillment of the digital agenda.  To solve the economic problems of citizenship the government created Panama solidarity.  It works by using ID card in markets and drug stores around the country.  The credit isn't needed to enter governmental portal where until information of the person is used such as ID and full name.  In this instance, even though it's private data, in order to receive it is required for the person to place the ID number and to confirm their identity by means of other country data that only the person knows.  Focusing on a free or more accessible Internet with less vigilance and grave privacy is essential because information, for example, is a digital right for everyone.

COVID‑19 pandemic has dramatically enhanced the role of digital communication technologies in everyday life.  Although, resolving complications across cybersecurity and privacy will require new norms and policies, the challenges are a lot too.

Considering the short term and long‑term challenges faced by the government, the active data and technology and related applications of digital governments agencies impact, Panama can be expected to pay attention to relevant policy measures.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Ms., Lopez, can you please include.

   >> JENIFER LOPEZ:  Also influences from COVID‑19 pandemic and other emergencies will encourage to take advantage of the power of innovation.  Thank you so much.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you, Jenifer.  We have already signed up for intervention, Mr. Timofey from the Russian Federation.  So, the floor is yours, but please be very quick as we are already over the time of this block, please.

>> TIMOFEY:  First, I thank the organizers for the opportunity to share our experience.  Well, nobody would doubt once a crisis, society claims higher demand for reliable information, but there is a pitfall, reliable information is not enough as long as it is not packed in some views and understandable form and moreover, we have to enhance for peoples a attention and as a matter of fact they have plan to follow staff to look at.  To ensure that a special information convention center has been set up in Russia to manage all the public communication with statements and authorities around the subject of coronavirus.  While doing that, more than even before we're faced over challenges modern technologies could actually raise. 

On the one hand, Internet, social networks and last but not least, instant messengers have become a main entity for spreading fake and misleading information.  Some of them could be about helicopters, I guess you have that flying around citizens, and but also there were fakes that carried and affected people's health and life and such stories regarding treatment of coronavirus disease could lead to denial for fundamental medical care and as a result end in real human death.  Frankly speaking, the pandemic of fakes did not miss our country.  The anxiety and social use in society was quite high.  People rumor different stories from jokes around vodka treating coronavirus to some mystical conspiracy in global state and Bill Gates trying to lead the whole world.  And this transpired different forms of communication in which media users are used to consume and normal Internet behavior.  Forms vary greatly from special media platforms to integration and collaborations, popular bloggers, and influencers, and the big one was when we launched more than 60 official regional telegram channels each corresponding to a state, regional, coronavirus headquarters and came with both distributing official and reliable information and debunking fakes, for example once we found the fake about some criminals turned up to be epidemiological service that were allegedly infiltrating and robbing homes, and in 30 minutes we got a response from the police that there was absolutely no base for that story to be true, but police released an official statement and within a few hours they distributed exposure of the fake across all 835 regions of Russia. 

The social networks we establish a shortcut mechanism removing fake content and in minutes after detection, and to some up, Internet has brought us a serious challenge for social integrity and health but it gave us a direct way to establish trustful communication in between authorities and people where we as a state could provide openness, opportunity, and ability to speak the same language as a result covers a lot of experience and ready to share it without any limitations, and we're planning to actually hold an international conference on September 2021 so I would like to invite all of you, if the epidemic situation is satisfactory, meet in Russia and discuss practices approaches.  Now I would like to drop a message in the chat if you think such an event could be useful or not.  Thank you very much.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you.  So, we are over the time of the first block.  We don't have specific questions in the chat, so we will try to move to the second block of this Main Session, which is ‑‑ which will deal with technologies helping people.

I would ask Anja to launch the second poll for this session, and we will try to look at examples of good practices for combating emergency situations using database technologies and emerging technologies.  Three speakers, first from Italy IGF, Manuela, and Dominion Republic, and from Asia‑Pacific IGF Ms. Jennifer Chung and so let's start with Ms. Manuela from Italy IGF and please all the speakers, no more than three minutes as we need to stick to our time.

   >> EMANUELA:  Hi, everybody.  Thank you for inviting me.  Part of IGF there, part of the committee of IGF Italy, and using technology to tackle the COVID‑19 crisis.  2020 the pandemic is in Italy and Italy, the first European country to face the emergency, and not at all prepared.  But the thrill community of AI researchers and scientists joined together and developed several concrete proposals to government, health institutions, and doctors to face the health emergency.

So today we'll quickly mention three initiatives, very relevant.  The first one on bioinformatics, the second on image analysis, and the third that has already been mentioned by the Russian colleague and also by the Brazilian colleague about infodemic.  So, bioinformatics a group analyze the So, molecular data to provide purposes for drug.  The data from this group is very useful for the scientists looking for existing drugs, drugs that need for further utilization and could be used immediately and director to treat COVID‑19 patients.

Second, image analysis, and so another group of scientists worked together with the radiologists and doctors to collect CT scans and X‑rays of patients with lung infections both with COVID and not COVID infection.  So, they analyzed the data with AI image recognition algorithm and they could provide a tool for making diagnosis faster, cheaper, and more manageable in the hospital process.

The third one infodemic already mentioned by the interview before me.  And during the crisis, we've all been exposed to a huge amount of COVID‑19 information or misinformation, fake news, and as he said, not all of these were reliable information and it was making it very hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they needed it, so another group of scientists in Italy, they used the AI model to analyze the social media data to identify and monitor the overload of unreliable information, and they built an infodemic index and so this index has been a very useful early‑warning signals for the Italian government to evaluate the impact of the policy that they were developing, and to monitor the emotions and the sentiments of the citizens.

Considering that at the beginning of the pandemic, in Italy this index was at the level of 30 out of 100 and after three weeks of the lockdown, the official communication started and the policy started and the index went down to 3.  So, it reduced the dramatically the disinformation and fake news.

Okay, so since there are, I mean, we developed several initiatives, but I'm also very interested in hearing and learning from the experiences of the other country, so I thank you, Flavio, and I give you back the floor.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Emanuela for the relevant contribution to the question here.  So now let's move to Mr. Osvaldo from Dominican Republic and IGF.  Please, the floor is yours.  Three minutes, please.

>> OSVALDO:  Hi, everyone.  Please let me congratulate the previous participants in the flow of Internet and emergency situations.  Looking at the samples of information for combating using database technology.  Researchers from our country, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, formed an interdisciplinary team to learn about some conditions experienced by elderly after social distance to COVID‑19 and impose things since March 19 in our country in different parts of the world.

The objective was to find out from the pandemic if all people maintain active life, so what is the level of use of ICT to establish relationship learning activities for creation and emotional state.  Some of the research showed that the urgency of these samples remain active to household cores, and they use ICT to communicate with family and friends to learn new knowledge and creation.

We also check out in scenario where no access to technology prevails in this group of age, and so that there was different emotions related to the use of technology and the not use of technology, considering the bonding relationship and new learning at this time as a sanction.

We noticed that all people and the need to creating technology during this space reinforce intergenerational, interpersonal relationships and public policy can make sense in order to improve the group of people in adopting technology.  In another area, the Dominican Government has been working on different digital agenda focus, and they have been providing by providing public services VMware in order to improve the possibility to access the services, certificates, and things like that that creates an opportunity for everybody to reduce timing and to in this moment of the digital COVID emergency, to have access to these different opportunities.  This has proved to be very effective in these moments, and another area where the government has been applying database applications is for tracking or informing people using COVID apps based on Android or iOS platforms to provide services within the mobile, using chatbots or allow people to know and determine if they are infected or not.  This has been a problem being effective since the epidemic authorities can track them based on privacy and data protection policies and complying with these different approaches, and as we know, in the Dominican Republic.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Please conclude.

   >> OSVALDO:  Yes.  This is my final remark.  Different apps to promote those situations have been effective in our country in these emergency times.  Thank you.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Osvaldo, for your consideration.  So now we have Ms. Jennifer Chung from Asia‑Pacific IGF.  Please, Jennifer, the floor is yours.

   >> JENNIFER CHUNG:  Thank you, Flavio.  Hello colleagues.  My name is Jennifer Chung speaking with the Secretariat of the Asia‑Pacific IGF on right now, and really wanted to applaud colleagues that spoke before me about really effective solutions and innovative solutions that many states and countries have found during this pandemic times, and as we all know, Asia‑Pacific is the home of a really large and diverse region of different economies, developed, developing economies in transition, and the COVID‑19 pandemic itself has originated from in region and lots of different ways of combating and mitigating the impacts felt were seen across the region and in fact three states have been very successful in combating such crises such as New Zealand, South Korea, and Taiwan, and also Vietnam.  And it's really interesting because it turns the assumption on its head that it's only, you know, countries that are very rich in resources or are only successful in combating such crises. 

And, in fact, many developing economies in the Asia‑Pacific have also innovated very much during this period.  And in Taiwan, as an example, as an economy that was very successful in mitigating these risks, many people cited trust in the government and also the very fictive rollout of different measures such as contact tracing that doesn't require revealing information, contact tracing that the users throw away emails and pre‑paid mobile numbers because a lot of people did have concerns of privacy when we're looking at contract‑tracing apps.

Another example that we were discussing during APRIGF was the problems faced by communities that are underserved, people with disabilities.  In normal situations, in non‑emergency situations, many of the information that reaches these communities is already very difficult, and when you see the added pressure of COVID‑19, this actually makes it worse. 

So, we have the case study of Bangladesh governments being very quick to respond to creating a separate channel with real texts and also sign language videos to actually push real information out to communities that are vulnerable to the situation.  And also, in the context of time, I would like to really wrap up on the final point that is very important that was brought up during our discussions this year, which is learning during COVID‑19.  I think previous colleagues have already mentioned that because of everything being digitalized, the access gap of the digital divide is more exacerbated by all of these conditions, and adapting to actually using different infrastructure in the case study of Philippines where we had students who actually had to climb trees to get to better WiFi signals, really highlights the importance of having a very holistic system of looking at access of looking at changing how we look at education for the students that are most vulnerable and least able to continue with their education life.  And I do notice that in our ‑‑

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Would you please conclude.

>> JENNIFER CHUNG:  In the agenda there is a South Korean colleague, so hopefully we'll hear more about the success stories there.  Back to you, Flavio.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you, Jennifer.  So, in discussing good examples of good practices using technology for combating emergency situations let us about vulnerable groups.  We have two speakers here first is Mr. Dustin from IGF USA, and then Ms. Olga from Argentina IGF.  Dustin, the floor is yours, three minutes at most, please.

>> DUSTIN:  On behalf of IGF USA, I first thank everyone in the community for the outpouring of support for Marilyn, it's a great loss and she'll be greatly missed but it's great to see her live on through all of you in your work.

Like many of the NRIs, COVID‑19 has dominated the discussion at the IGF USA 2020.  Four of our nine sessions referenced it in the title, and instead of giving it keynote to a person, we compiled a video from people across the U.S. in different fields sharing their experiences, focusing on issues like connectivity, education, and ultimately the role that the Internet played in everyday life in the way it did not before.

There was a large health care provider that went from 1, 600 virtual encounters in the entire month of February to 60,000 per week in April.  There was quickly expanded visitation for people, and workplaces went remote and so did schools.  The results were a mixed bag but a few themes emerged.

First, both the providers and recipients of virtual services needed to have access to the Internet, devices and know how in order to utilize them.  The best practice here is having infrastructure and technology knowledge in place prior to the spike in demand, although of course this does not always happen.

Second, governments and other large decision‑making institutions needed to understand the importance of the solution and respond accordingly, and this could mean doing more or less.  Telehealth provides a case for demonstrating this, health care providers rapidly scaled their virtual offerings, and in some cases, practices went 100% virtual, continuing to provide much needed care to their patients.

So, what did it take for this to happen and where did it fall short?  One thing we found is that the technology and functionality already existed, but there were economic and institutional and regulatory barriers hindering this rollout.  In response we saw national and local governments take steps to quickly make necessary policy changes, some temporary, to pave the way for health care providers.  With technology already in place and governmental decisions to relax privacy regulation, allow cross‑jurisdictional medical care, and shift policies around insurance coverage for remote visits, providers were able to deploy solutions rapidly.

However, as mentioned, virtual solutions require things to be in place on the recipient's end as well and here is where we saw gaps as the digital divide exposed itself to the entire nation.  We cannot provide virtual solutions during emergencies if the infrastructure and the broad sense of the word, is not in place.  Thankfully, there was a widespread movement by companies, including ISPs as well as local, public, and private institutions that moved quickly to meet the connectivity needs and get people online to access the services they needed.

What has become readily relevant is that we need to develop sustainable solutions that are ready for the next emergency instead of rolling out temporary solutions each time and so that the services can reach everyone when they're needed and they don't have to wait on the technology to reach them.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Dustin.  Thank you for sticking to the three minutes.  So, Olga, from Argentina IGF.

   >> OLGA:  Hello everyone from Argentina.  My name is Olga, representing the Argentina IGF, and I will share some interesting things about some rural activities that we had in the country.  First of all, let me remind our dear Marilyn Cade, I'm sure she's with us in this moment because she was very active and she will always be with us.

Congratulations to IGF Secretariat and this very good session organized by colleagues.  Argentina has 23 provinces and 1 Federal capital with a vast geography, and so in normal time we have no formal borders in between the provinces, but during COVID there is no way to move along the provinces, there were restrictions to move along the roads and crossing provinces.  This may mean nothing to many of us that we can work from home, but it represented a big problem, especially for very small agricultural producers, so Argentina is a ‑‑ its economy is based on agriculture mainly, and so the small producers had very, very bad time because they couldn't sell their products and that harmed deeply their sustainability, their economic sustainability, and also this part of the economy is very informal, they're usually not very related with banks and they pay everything in cash, and face‑to‑face.

So, that represented to them a very challenging situation, and usually their products are being sold in cities nearby, but that represents that they have to move from one province to the other province and they could not do that, so the National Institute for Agriculture Technology what we call in Spanish the INTA, had a very interesting idea and thanks to my dear colleague, Matius, who works there, he has been telling us about this initiative and they developed a network called commercial solidarity network, and so it does ‑‑ they create this system which included several online workshops using different social networks and other connectivity tools, so and the communications were mainly made by mobile phones and data with mobile with this small producers.

So what they allowed them to sell their products and they got also the authorization from the government to move from province to the other provinces, and so these small producers could be sustainable with this crisis, and the interesting thing is that the international institute of agriculture technology was working with them to promote the use of technology and the use of formal payment methods, and that was before.  But now this accelerated a lot with the pandemic, and so then this has been ‑‑ I think it's a good experience of how this critical situation developed into a very good development using technology and formal payment methods.

If you're interested, the website of this initiative copied and pasted, the link is copied and pasted in the chat.  Thank you very much for inviting me.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you, Olga ‑‑ (no audio).

>> OLGA:  Flavio, you're muted.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  I'm sorry.  I'm muted.  So, thank you, Olga.  And let's move to the discussion on this second block.  We have Mr. Eun Chang from South Korean IGF that signed up for intervention, so please Mr. Chang, you have up to two minute for your intervention, please.

>> EUN CHANG:  This control is widely claimed by the worldwide medias, and successful saves citizens more life.  The strategy can be summarized into three parts.  First of all ‑‑ (audio feedback) ‑‑ ensuring database technology and contact tracing ‑‑ contact tracing COVID‑19.

The interesting picture of the strategy is that instead of enforcing Draconian rules in emergency institution, South Korean Government adopted some database contact‑tracing practice comprising of the ranking mobile phone GPS data and critical transactions and public transportation records.

Most of all, policymakers took account of the balance between public health and investigation and ensuring the media and personal data.

Such base practice study has meaningful implication to us.  We should learn that it would be important in fighting coronavirus to dispel on necessary privacy risk concerns.  When government successfully satisfied the concern or dispelled the concern, more people will welcome this measure.

Moreover, the database technology should be used in compliance with due process law and preserving another media of the individual identities is very important.

Admittedly, some critics have raised concern about too much disclosure of personal data and that immediately South Korean Government changed the data disclosed guideline to Patient Pat because to dispel that the concern of the privacy, they changed it twice about the guideline there down in the range of data closure and in the process, all in all, database contact tracing technology has been widely accepted by Korean citizens without consider backlash, and it's very important.  And it is because the entire purpose of data gathering is precisely focused on investigation for the public safety and not other kind of investigation or something.  Why is Korean citizens hold a strong sense of privacy, they are admitting that the deployment of the database technology with region for public safety.  Thank you.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much.  So, we move then quickly to the third block of our Main Session and this will ‑‑ it is entitled, No One Left Behind, and so we have also a poll here.  If, Anja, could you please share the poll with us on the screen and it will be there left for you, attendees, to respond to the poll.

So, the first question in this third block of our session is how to secure the deployment of online tools and services for combating emergency situation, and for responding to the first question, we have three speakers invited, Mr. from West African IGF and Mr. Roberto from Bolivia IGF, and Mr. Felix from Spain IGF.  So, you are first and please all the speakers, three minutes each, and I will have to interrupt you because we are over our time, so please, the floor is yours.

>> I don't see him currently on the call so maybe you can move to another speaker.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Yeah.  Yeah.  Okay.  Let's move to Roberto from Bolivia.  So please, Roberto.

   >> ROBERTO ZAMBRANA:  Thank you very much, Flavio.  Nice to be here with all of you colleagues.  I would like to start saying that as we all have in our countries, when most of us started a lockdown in March and in our case we started on 23 of March and of course most of the services were affected, particularly the ones like education, very critical one, and also the public services for the citizens, all their paperwork, all of the kind of things that were free set during that time because they wouldn't be able to continue doing those that are very important for them.

Of course, no ones with prepared, and despite the many advances that many of these offices in the public sector, particularly, despite of them, it takes years to be prepared for a crisis like this, and it takes years to prepare all the technological infrastructure that is needed to overcome this kind of situation.

And I want to share a very interesting experience coming from the local government in Bolivia, and from the very first moment, actually, they continue working using technology as a main way, and not only working with mobile applications and where they have published all of their services, but also using a contact center in a very clever way.  And I mean, combining IP telephony and making this available for these workers, and enabling them to work from their homes, so that was very important thing to share that allowed all the people to concur using this context and in order to not only receive information but to receive services, actually.

Just a key example of what happened regarding the amount of people that was attended.  Before the pandemic there were registered about 40,000 to 50,000 people that were using this kind of services, but after the pandemic, the recent measure was about 250,000 people and of course this pandemic brought very much sadness for everyone in a global way, but if we can think about positive things that this pandemic can bring to us and to everyone, it was the spirit or the boost that it provided to all of these technological services using Internet as main channel of communication.  Thank you very much, Flavio.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Roberto.  Thank you for sticking to three minutes.  Very timely.  So, now we move to Mr. Felix from the Spain IGF, so Felix, the floor is yours.

   >> FELIX HERNANDEZ-GIL:  Okay.  Thank you very much Flavio.  In Spain, the availability of high-speed Internet as network has been key in emergency situations, allowing the continuity of activities of remote working or education or the provision of public services.  So, it has been crucial to put in place measures to answer the deployment of good Internet access network and the relation place a very important role in this.  And from a relation framework, made possible that several telecom operators invested in network and that produced a high viability of wideband Internet access.

Now the fiber coverage in is around 80% of the homes.  There is also universal service regulations that is a great coverage of multigeographical areas and enough is for the Internet access and is now the plan to establish a minimum speed of 30 megabytes per second, and a new regulation is also being introduced to answer the availability of low‑cost offer for people with limited resources.

During the pandemic, it is also very helpful, the offering of free additional resources by telecom operators that are especially used for people with few economic resources, and this includes free additional capacity for subscriptions and the provision of free Internet access for from use users.

Another key issue has been the availability of public online services that are used to help people that have been seriously affected by the pandemic.  The conventional face‑to‑face services are totally saturated due to the high demand, so the online services played a key role in this situation.

Well, that is all from my side.  Thank you very much for your attention.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Felix.  Thank you very much.  So, another question related to this block is how to tailor our policies and actions to support the most vulnerable ones?

And addressing this question, we have speaker Ms. Zana from Lebanon IGF, so please, the floor is yours.  Three minutes.

>> ZEINA:  Hello, everyone.  While I fully agree with all that has been said from my colleagues, but we should not underestimate also the risks that children might face when using technology.  In the current COVID situation where young people are connected online for longer time and where the Internet is providing limitless opportunities for them to learn, to communicate, to socialize, to share their views, this same Internet might cause significant challenges also to their safety, so keeping them safe online has become an increasingly urgent matter.

And in Lebanon, we urgently need to review what has been done to protect them in, and the Main Session during the digital IGF was dedicated to safer Internet for children during crisis, and it highlighted the missing required actions and invited all stakeholders to collaborate before it's too late for our society.

The biggest challenge in the current situation is to rapidly create essential environment for children on the Internet and this is not only a national challenge but also a global one.  Knowing that harmful content can psychologically and morally affect our children, we need to accelerate our mission, and in fact the high‑level council for childhood within the ministry of social affairs has played a key role in establishing a national committee that works to coordinate efforts between all parties concerned with the issue, or with this issue.

We also ‑‑ the same committee is now working on preparing materials for teachers, and handbook for parents in order to educate them how to protect their children from the dangers that they might face on the Internet.

She also has ‑‑ also in the safety of children online and their activities are headed out either solely or in partnership with government agencies and these activities are based on interactive techniques and focus on child protection and life skills such as building self‑confidence and teaching them when to say, no.

This cooperation is also taking place with cybercrime office as Lebanon witnessed an increased reporting cases during the lockdown and it reached around 9 complaints per days by minors, and so as a result of the closure the public prosecution offices stopped receiving complaints and the mechanisms adopted for reporting were the web page vendors or in English, it's report.  And in addition to the social media pages and the phone number of the cybercrime bureau.  Parents were urged to immediately report any criminal attempt.  With corona, the number of complaints related to threats increased, are as criminals used the name of health organizations to request private information with the aim of stealing as well as hacking smart phones, request an amount of money in exchange for reactivating for forms, and then the public security forces ‑‑

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Please wrap up, please.

>> ZEINA:  Many lessons were learned from this pandemic and the most important one is that we need to coordinate efforts to spreading awareness and to work together on updating the relevant laws and policies to include strict measures that protect our society and our children when exposed to the dangers on the Internet.  Thank you, Flavio.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you, Zeina.  Thank you very much.  Yeah.  Protecting the children is indeed a very important issue especially in such emergency situations.

So, going into the discussion we have Mr. from the IGF signed up for intervention, so Mahen, the floor is yours.  Two minutes at most, please.

>> MAHEN:  Thank you, everybody.  I am Mahen Busgopaul from Mauritius.  We've heard about how to tailor our policies to support the most vulnerable ones and actually we are seeing that emerging situations and new threats are arising and we need to look for appropriate measures to circumvent the adverse effects, and as NRIs we work with communities to ensure that everyone has access to emerging tools, and in so doing keeping our promise not to leave anyone behind.

The goals that we want to achieve in this part of Africa is that no one is left behind.  I will take this opportunity to highlight what Mauritius IGF is proposing to do.  We embarked on recent study with main aim to encompass all communities to everyone.

This research study is looking at connecting the Internet community, bridging gaps, and eliminating digital inequality.  The main objectives of the study can be summarized as follows and we want to start and collect information from the marginalized and difficult‑to‑reach population on the Internet usage to develop evidence‑based solutions, to open accessible and rights‑based Internet for all, and to come up with solutions of helping everyone to the process of Internet and also to acquaint participants and audiences on digital literacy and the African Union Declaration on Internet Governance.

What will be the impact?  In short, the recommendations will secure the deployment of tools and services, and the expected outcomes will, among other things, look at African citizens tracking progress on digital literacy penetration and African Union Declaration or Internet Governance Agenda 2063 and participants will also be acquainted on the concept of Internet governance and how they can be producers and not just consumers in this ecosystem.

We also want to go forward for empowerment of disadvantaged and disabled children using Internet to meet their needs.  And, finally, the rural communities taking up and harnessing opportunities that come with Internet access.

In Mauritius, we want no one to be left behind with a main target and we expect to encompass the following communities out‑of‑school use, home stay mothers, rural community leaders, disabled children, among others, and in conclusion I would like to say that in order to secure the deployment of online tools and services for combating any situation linked with the Internet, people need to be educated and have the ability to have their personal safety while accessing Internet.  As NRIs, we need to allow individuals to decide what is actually happening at Internet level and empower them to have their personal choice.  Education is a starting point and we can do it now, pooling citizens all together with educational tools is a public action‑oriented pledge from Mauritius IGF.  Thank you.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much.  So, let's move now to the fourth block of this Main Session and let's talk about the economies in emerging situations.  So, one of the main issues caused by this pandemic is the negative economic effects for families and individuals in our communities, considering long lockdowns that make it impossible to continue working or doing regular activities, particularly for those self‑employed.

And so you see on the screen a poll regarding this economic question with regard to the emergency situation that we are facing.  So, the question here is, what are good policy practices from stakeholders around the world taking advantage of Internet services to support the economies in those times?  And we have four speakers for this fourth block.  Let's start with Mr. Nick from the United Kingdom IGF, and so please, Nick, three minutes and the floor is yours.

>> NICK WEBAN‑SMITH:  Good morning wherever you are in the world.  I'm speaking on behalf of the United Kingdom Internet Governance Forum and part of the Secretariat which I support.  The committee held a full program this year mirrored United Nations global IGF but did it in the lens at the time held over three‑day period of 15 to 17 of September and we pretty current and we did it specifically with the timing of this meeting in mind.

We focused on the same core themes, trust, particularly protecting digital rights during the pandemic, inclusion, and with a particular focus on the skills gaps and access which has been exacerbated by the pandemic, data and algorithmic transparency, which is obviously increasingly important, and last but not least, the Internet and the environment.

So, the first thing to point out would be that overnight with the pandemic, it resulted in a remote working arrangement.  I'm currently speaking to you from the second national lockdown, and so pretty much we went through maybe several years of economic digitization in the space of a few weeks.

Coming to support the good policy practices that have been essential for our economy, I think we all knew how important digital was to our national economy and also to the global economy, but this is only emphasized just how important it has been to be able to have a strong resilient digital economy.

Our Internet infrastructure came under significant pressure and scrutiny, but proved highly resilient and absolutely crucial for our economic survival, so one of the investments that had made in it paid good dividends when it came to the overnight digitization and remote working that we had to go through.

And I suppose my main point is that the acceleration of these existing trends, resulting in some step changes and I specifically wanted to call out a couple of important points of policy, which have helped us through this and will continue to guide us as we go through this process.  Firstly, our government launched in partnership with business a digital national strategy around what are we doing as a nation and how we strategically are approaching the digital world, and already we're thinking about post‑pandemic and the phrase we use is to build back better, to build back into something which is more acceptable to a low‑carbon environment, for smarter work, and would be more sustainable for our future and for our future generations.

But with everything, there is a very pro‑business and pro‑innovation focus, so it's a very ambitious national data strategy also launched in order to how do we maximize use for national data and not just for health but for all business purpose, and it's very pro‑innovation and heavily relies on industry partnership not with digital tech companies but small and medium‑size enterprises.  We also have a very strong focus on the risks of an increasing digitized business environment, and the fact that online harms do need to be addressed and that has become a higher priority and the government is bringing out national legislation in the last quarter of this year.

But finally, it's been an immense success story because as we had the digital minister announce at IGF, that 85,000 new online stores created in the first four months of the pandemic as we moved rapidly over it a digital economy.

And that's it for me.  Thank you very much for the opportunity.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Nick.  Let's move quickly to Mr. Makane from African IGF.  The floor is yours, three minutes, please, try to stick to the time.

>> MAKANE:  Good afternoon to everybody from Senegal.  We paid tribute to and thank the IGF Secretariat for organizing this panel.  Speaking about the digital for us mission strategy for Africa of the African union, it was developed in cooperation with Commission for Africa, the original committees, Smart Africa who support using the Internet to support African countries.

So, the overall objective is to harness the technology and innovation to transform African societies and communities to promote Africa's integration, generate inclusive growth, simulate job creation, from the digital divide.

The specifics objectives are to build a secure digital market in Africa by 2030, and digitally impose African population to safe and secure connectivity using affordable devices (?) of which particular developed in Africa.  We build an inclusive digital skill and capacity across in education and offer online skills development program to provide basic knowledge and skills in security and privacy in digital environment 100 Africans a year by 2020 and 2021 and 300 million per year by 2025.  We build a viable sector approach, digitalization of the health sector, and make sure that by 2030, 99% of people in Africa have digital legal identity adds part of civil legislation portion.

The digital transformation strategy for Africa is based on foundation pillar and critical sectors, including the health.  Corresponding skills also we have digital content and applications and research and development.  The digital strategy includes policy recommendations and actions on each foundation critical to cross‑cutting themes.  The strategy is further guided by the solidarity and cooperation.  Solidarity of African union member states and cooperation between the Africa union regs and African organizations and finally encourages to Agenda of African union and Sustainable Development Goals and the digital strategy is being implemented by Member States starting by the year 2020.  Thank you very much.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much, Makane, for your nice conclusion.  Let's move quickly to the third speaker which is Mr. Carlos from Ecuador IGF.  Please, Carlos, three minutes, please.

>> CARLOS:  Hello?  (audio breaking up).

>> My apologies, the quality of the connection is too low to understand the speaker.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Carlos, we are very sorry but we cannot hear you.

(audio breaking up ‑‑ no interpretation).

>> CARLOS:   We have multiple difficulties to launch it in the global market.  What we learned during the pandemic is that it is crucial to have a community‑based economy.  Unfortunately, we can only hear isolated words from the speaker.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  We can't hear you so we'll have to ‑‑

>> I think he's speaking in Spanish.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  So, I'm sorry, Carlos.  We have to move on.  We cannot hear you.  We are already well over time, so let's try to move to our last speakers from EuroDIG the European IGF, Ms. Meri and Marcel, so you have both together three minutes at both.  Please try to stick to the time.  Please, Mary.

>> MERI:  Thank you, Flavio.  We'll try to be as brief as possible.  EuroDIG took place as virtual event in June just a few months after the pandemic started and the meeting was launched with a plenary on European digital economy and COVID‑19 pandemic, and initial decision had different focus, but as the session planning process coincided with the emergence of the pandemic, it was decided to refocus the session to allow for more timely and important discussions at the EuroDIG upon European Internet governance initiative.  It was all about the unique state of affairs for the European Digital Economy enforcement in the context of COVID‑19 pandemic.  So, the multistakeholder panel reflected on different aspects of the pandemic's impact on the digital economy including security, economic human rights, and innovation dimensions.  We had the opportunity to have very lively discussions with speakers from OECD, Council of Europe, ETNA and science park and thereby setting up the scene for the discussions at the virtual EuroDIG meeting, and I had a pleasure to serve as co‑focal point for the plenary and now I would like to give the floor to the colleague and co‑focal point Marcel to share with you the brief recap of the key takeaway from our discussions.  Marcel, you have the floor.

>> MARCEL:  We focused on developments that were presented and asked if they were present after the pandemic in digital paradigm shift.  Right now, we need to think about the sustainable society that we want to create and what role digital technology will play in the society.  But we did not only deal with long‑term issues but also talked about how we can master the current situation with the use of science, solidarity and mutual support.

Therefore, we need to tackle among other things the gap of digital divide stakeholders and need a forward‑looking approach that promotes investment and co‑investment.

At the same time, we need to invest in the upskilling on ICT matters in order to facilitate improvements as the Internet has been the main channel of communication.

The corona pandemic created a certain dynamic in the economic and academic environment which makes it necessary to always assess the current situation retrospectively and with a forward‑looking approach, so to make things short thanks a lot for all of you to make this come through and please take a look at the messages posted by Ricardo in the chat already.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Thank you very much Meri and Marcel.  So, we are arriving at the end of the session, and unfortunately, we do not have time to discussion anymore as we have to close.

I would ask, Anja, please share with us the results from the four polls so that people can see because this will be posted also to the list of the NRIs so people can share with their communities.

   >> ANJA GENGO:  Can you see them, Flavio?

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  It's flashing, yeah.  Oh.  Results are ‑‑ the screen is not stable.  It flashes.  Oh, it's fine now.

   >> ANJA GENGO:  Okay.  Well, I mean, in general in the interest of time, Flavio, let me just say because I've seen these polls and I had more time to spend with them than you, is that it seems that our participants indeed see that digital technologies have a huge potential to support people in emergencies, and what's even more good is that on the questions where we ask whether there were any actions or policies already taken to combat emergencies, there were much more positive responses than negative.

So, it poses a good, I think, foundation for the NRIs to further work on exploring which policies, which actions, what has been done and what needs to be done for the next IGF cycle.  Thank you.

   >> FLAVIO WAGNER:  Yes.  Yeah.  Thank you very much, Anja.  So, as you know all main sessions are producing messages, and these are being prepared by the organizing committee of this Main Session and this will be available to the community in two weeks from now, and has been done also in the most other sessions in this IGF.  At the end of the session, the participants, the speakers make their commitments to the IGF and to the future of the IGF, and the commitment we propose for the whole NRI community, at the end of this session is that all of the participating NRIs, the 131 NRIs commit to continue facilitating open, inclusive, transparent, bottom‑up, and multistakeholder dialogue on Internet governance matters of people's priority.

And this is the commitment we would like that all of our community of IGF of NRIs to take as their responsibility for the following months and years to come.

So, thank you very much all of you to be present here and leave to Anja to complete the session.  Anja, last word?

  >> ANJA GENGO:  I conclude with a huge thank you to you Flavio, to you Mary, and it's been challenging to focus and organize the session for so many reasons this week and you've done a remarkable job from experience, I know, it's not easy to moderate this session especially because ‑‑ see that's my alarm for the next session.  It's not easy to moderate this session because the NRIs always have a lot to say and we're always interested to hear about the NRIs and the good practices and work that exists there.

But I want to thank everyone, I want to thank all the NRIs for tireless work throughout the year, all the speakers, coordinators, co‑organizers, all the stakeholders that were supporting the network throughout this year.

As somebody mentioned in the chat, it is true that the next session, the High-Level Leaders Session on Securities will be in this room so you do not need to leave the room so that's good and can you stay, but we still need to conclude and give time for transition to the other session.

With that, thank you very much, excellent commitment, the forum will definitely benefit from it, and everything that you heard and have seen from slides on this session, messages, will be shortly shared through the NRI's mailing list and posted also on the IGF website.  Flavio, Mary, thank you so much for this because it was an excellent session.  Thank you for always reminding me.

   >> MARY UDUMA:  Everyone put on your video, let's go, everybody, including myself, for a photo.  Anja, can you take ‑‑ Anja, you're still there and we need to see everybody.

   >> ANJA GENGO:  I've just done.  I took a photo.  Thank you, Mary.

   >> MARY UDUMA:  Thank you everyone.  Thank you very much, Flavio for good moderation.  Thank you, Anja.