IGF 2020 – Day 11 – WS357 New profiles of marketing aimed at children in the Internet

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the virtual Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), from 2 to 17 November 2020. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 



>> Hi.  I'm Isabella, I'll be the moderator of the workshop called New Profiles of Marketing at 10:10UTC.


 >> MODERATOR: Yes, I just was advised that I thought they would say something ‑‑ so we can ‑‑ I think we should start.

>> We can start in three minutes.

>> MODERATOR: Okay, some people are watching us.  We will begin our session in exactly two minutes.  We can begin after that

>> Okay.

>> Hello all.  I hope and your loved ones are doing well.  The session is going to start now.  It is going to be recorded and IGF code of conduct and U.N. rules of regulation.  The link is visible in the chat.  I will welcome all the panelists and attendees.  Hopefully we have a fruitful session here.  Isabella, you can take it.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you.

Welcome to the workshop New Profiles of Marketing Aimed at Children on the Internet organized by Alana Institute.  I am Isabella Henriques.  And I will be the moderator of the session.  I thank the IGF for having accepted our proposal.  And I thank the presence of everyone who is watching us.  I also thank the panelists for being patient and participating in this conversation.

Jeremy Hitchcock, Dorothy Gordon, Danilo Donedo and Jacqueline Stephenson.

And I am especially grateful for those who are in the time zone not very suitable for remote event.  I am in Brazil in South America.  And it's 7:00 a.m. here, a good time for this conversation.  The Alana Institute is a non‑profit civil society organization that has been working with the mission of honor the children for over 20 years here in Brazil.  Among its programs there is child consumerism created to increase awareness of impact and damage caused by children's commercial exploitation especially through advertising and marketing aimed at children in every kind of digital environment.

We know children represent one‑third of Internet users worldwide.  This does not mean that additional environment is designed for them nor that their rights and best interests are at the center of the debate about the future of Internet and technology.  Actually, children experience additional comes across constant risk, digital commercial exploitation.  While they're accessing the Internet Foundation or educational purpose, children are non‑stop targets by mechanically advertising techniques that send them a clear message from consumerism.  So there is more than to be.

But children's commercial exploitation goes beyond translating to even more sophisticated and techniques as they have bids models rise today center of digital environment.  They expose children to personal data collection.  Not only children's privacy is at risk but also their safety and freedom.  We need to defend children's rights to health and full development but also for their rights to engage in playful creative activities to enjoy cultural and engage with families and communities and connect with nature.  This is very important as it is urgent that we talk about this subject.  In this sense the guiding questions for the panelists:  How to protect children in the digital environment.  How to promote in the business sector more fair and responsible marketing practice.  What are legal and self‑regulatory standards regarding marketing to kids in digital environment.  Is it possible to harmonize digital data and children's rights by design?

Each panelist will have 8‑10 minutes to make presentation.  And at the end we'll have public and make final comments.  And to start I invite Jeffrey Chester to make his presentation.  Jeffrey is executive director of Digital Democracy Civil Society in the U.S.A.  Please, Jeffrey.

>> JEFFREY CHESTER: Hi, everybody.  Just now of course I'm looking for my PowerPoint here.  Here we go.  Okay

Wait wait wait.  I apologize.  It worked before and now ‑‑ how do I go back here?  Hold on.  Anyway, I'm Jeff Chester.  And I'm in Los Angeles, so it's 2:00 a.m. in the morning here.  I was thinking the other day.  There are multiple pandemics.  Obviously, there's the virus that is currently raging and threatening to make people's lives but we also have an obesity pandemic in the world and a youth pandemic.  And we ‑‑ and much of that as I will discuss is driven by digital advertising that obesity pandemic which is linked to obesity is linked to illness and vulnerability to the current virus, COVID‑19.  And then we have a pandemic of digital advertising and marketing.

You know, I could show you campaigns, current campaigns that the digital advertising marketing industry is operating.  Almost any country in the world that has Internet.  And this could be the same thing whether it's India, you know, on your screen left and South Africa on the right that McDonald's is a campaign from Brazil or Doritos and every country around the world.  Not just in food and beverage advertising.  But for gaming and entertainment and so many other product categories.  Digital marketers are using latest techniques to track and target and engage and shake the development and behavior of young people at the conscious and unconscious level.

And they won awards for years.  They've been really companies targeting young people is leading marketers in the world.  Incredibly successful for KFC in China emblematic is that today young people are the subjects of a virtual experiment.  Incredibly powerful advanced techniques are being used including artificial intelligence and machine learning to really understand them and shape their behavior and involve them for the most part in commercial activities.

Now, you're all familiar with this and this is just a partial list.  As we know today in terms of digital advertising and marketing targeting young people so we're talking about young children and teens there's that one distinct campaign, not one campaign of marketing environment that only focuses on one technique.  These are all a set of integrated techniques.  And since around 2012, in ‑‑ so in countries in the north, you know, and throughout Asia for that matter, you know, these are kind of what's being deployed.  What's really critical is this that today,, as we all know, as you know, you're tracked regardless of your device and your screen even for children is collected.  You're identified.  You can be targeted anywhere at any time.

And in order to kind of avoid take advantage of popular culture and certainly the emergence of the new popular culture in terms of people who engage in video games and music and the arts, influence in marketing, targeting children as young as 2, you know, and certainly parents is now a very important part of all of these technologies.  This is just a sense of where we're at.  I'm going to try to do two things in the minutes I have.

I'm going to talk more about what's going on now and kind of where we started.

Why is there more targeting commercial targeting of young people now?  Yes, it's also because if they're fortunate they're born into a society that's connected to the Internet whether it's mobile phone or economically fortunate to have devices in the home.  But young people are the key market.  Not only do young people have lots of money to spend.  The industry continually does this research to document how influential ‑‑ for example, Facebook did this ‑‑ how influential children are in so‑called power.  Not only are children influential but they are early and very key users, in fact, they have guide parents in terms of what subscriptions to buy for streaming video and that is exploding as a very powerful and important business.  Really the next‑generation of television.  So young people are a keen market for all of these digital products and services that the industry is going through a tremendous amount of investment in venture capital funding for example companies like Pepsi and Coca‑Cola are actually doing their own venture funding here in order to get these new technologies early so they can target children and most recently the well‑known gaming company, Epic Games, Fortnite bought one of the leading companies that is engaged now in marketing and advertising to children.  So it's a huge market.  You're seeing why is this moment important why do we need safeguards now?  Because the industry sees huge amounts of money and are targeting children with the most powerful applications.  What also different about today?  2012 the broad use of high speed computers to forget people through programmatic advertising began to evolve what is now the dominant form of advertising around the world so there's a data system that's constantly engaged in making split second decisions about who to target.  Parents cannot control this process in the last four or five years AI and machine learning and Google and Facebook and indeed most of the leading brands now make the determinations but the best way to target people they're using machine learning for contextual advertising, companies are saying contextual advertising is quote safe for children but not for the machine learning system that's currently operating and what's very important is that the industry has evolved its ability to understand when you watch and what happens consequently including what you buy at the store.  I will say I do think 2021 is an important moment for us both in our own country and we're very helpful about the incoming Biden administration and our work together with colleagues like Alana and for industry to step up to the plate and do more than they're doing to get new policies and safeguards through.  But I want to quickly tell people kind of where we came from.  I've been doing this since the early 1990s in the United States.  We evolved early as a group in part looking at a children's television and issues involving adults and monopolization of broadcast and cable medium.  But I looked at kids.

And already by 1994, 1995 when it was then the information super highway, the industry saw young people as a target market.  And there were no public policies.  So my organization then called the Center for Media Education documented these problems.  We showed how the marketers wanted to go after kids and in a famous case we exposed.  Warner Bros was telling young kids be a good citizen of Batman and fill out the census and tell us everything about yourself and your parents.  Huge amounts of data collection.  And that led to the passages of COPA in 1990 which was one of the first children's privacy laws which you have to see as a marketing law.  Achilles heel is data collection.  They have to ask for permission to get data collection.  Opt in versus opt out.  Makes it very, very difficult.  So we got a law through.  And it was hard to get that law through.  And in 2012 we were able to update COPA and taking, frankly, policies that had been articulated in the European Union so all of a sudden cookies identifiers were considered personal information.  And it's a strong and robust law.  And sadly, in the United States, the only people who are protected in terms of privacy online are those young people under 13.  And the reason why colleague organization campaigns for commercial for childhood we began a campaign going after Google for violating law.  They refused responsibility that they were targeting kids.  And we were able to get the Federal Trade Commission to not fine them but make significance changes.  So now Google around the world is not able to do data direct digital advertising to children.

So that's where we've come from.  I've looked at this now ‑‑ I don't want to think how many years.  I don't want to think how long I've been doing this.  But the industry business model has always been the same.  One‑to‑one marketing and the industry has expanded in an incredible way.  Capabilities and techniques to go after not just young people but everybody.  And there were a number of applications they do which are incredibly problematic for young people.  And they're really engaged in kind of testing in trying to impact child's psychosocial emotional and cognitive development in ways that, frankly, we don't know what the consequences will be.  So the industry is focused on immersion here to create an advertising states where the child kind of surrenders their consciousness.  A huge area that the industry is investing heavily in, including for advertising, is east ports and video gaming which has expanded during the pandemic.  And they've created a data collection and digital advertising advise model fueled by junk food which is extremely problematic for young people, children, and teens.  They have on the forefront of creating personalized advertising, this is a Google product you're probably all familiar with but every company has various ways of taking the information they have about you to change the ad to hone to your personality, your vulnerabilities, your interests and allow that ad to be changed based on interaction or device used.  Here's an example from pals at Facebook.  Instagram which although they claim children, aren't they?  And they're engaged in selling fast food and other products which we find are problematic.  One of the major applications and modalities that send a message.  This is a robust and growing area.  Emotional analytics they call it.  These applications are designed to ensure that young people and indeed all of us respond to the advertising and marketing messages in profoundly subconscious emotional ways.  Industry knows what they're doing.

>> I'm sorry, your time is ‑‑

>> That's fine with me.  This is from Google.

 >> JEFFREY CHESTER: Take care. Thank you very much.

>> MODERATOR: Sorry if you want to finish.

 >> JEFFREY CHESTER: Anyway, the industry is continually pushing these techniques.  Young people are the target.  Eighteen and under.  As I said, we have obesity crisis which the food and beverage companies ‑‑ I wait to hear from my colleague ‑‑ are totally responsible for in terms of expansion of unhealthy behaviors based on documentation industry provides about food and beverage advertising just for one example.  We think this is important public policy area.  And we're glad that advocates and scholars are making advancements in 2021 will make significant progress.  Thank you, all.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you, Jeffrey.  Your work is an inspiration to us all.  Now I pass to Dorothy Gordon.  She's the chair of information for all.  You can start.

 >> DOROTHY GORDON: Thank you.  Good afternoon, Good evening, everyone.  It's a pleasure for me to join this distinguished panel on a topic that is extremely important to the work of UNESCO's information for all program, IFAP, which I chair.  This is to build equitable societies.  They provide a platform for all the stakeholders in the society to participate in international discussions on policy and guidelines for action in the area of access to information and knowledge.  New information relates in the area of information literacy, information ethics, information for development, multilingualism online and access to information as we are looking to protect the children's rights.  Protection, provision, and participation.  The three Ps.  The global community ‑‑ and I was very happy, Jeff, that you talked about that ‑‑ we need to join forces to address the commercial exploitation of children in a more systematic way. who know by definition this requires multistakeholder engagement of the type that is illustrated by the Internet governance forum, and comes out of the WSIS process.  That means children themselves, parents, the companies, the not for profit sector, government, all citizens need to be involved.  Whatever influences our children influences the nature of our society.  At this moment it is simply too difficult for most people to track, mob tore and understand what is actually going on.  I'm going to look at this issue on a few head levels of awareness and need for collaborative action.  And I'll be focusing on the global.  We know that more and more children are going online and spending more time there.  But there's often an impression that this does not affect children living in households where there wouldn't be devices or that they've not got money to buy bandwidth or this particular household doesn't understand the key international languages.  Unfortunately, it's not true.  So while we see in the so‑called global north some level of progress on legislation and standard setting more and more children are coming online on devices that they rent or borrow or steal what happens, who knows and use bandwidth which they paid for in small bits.  So while somebody may be marketing on a platform so they have 5G, they would be marketed assuming they're on 2‑ or 3G.  They could study something on it.  But marketers are smart enough to produce ads that are right in terms of bandwidth consumption.  And, while our work in terms of raising awareness doesn't pay enough attention to the different languages we need to do that awareness raising in, marketers are way ahead of us in terms of you adjusting their bid models to suit this demographic.  These children play games and watch cartoons and get into content that is totally unsuitable for anyone of their age.  I've seen children in very rural areas going out of the village to find the only place that their phone can get connectivity.  And they will all congregate there. In gaming they put 5 minutes on a game and the next person comes along.  Parents often don't know anything about the lives ‑‑their children's online lives.  They personally don't use the Internet or read or understand the language that is being used online.  And they have no idea of the risks that their children are running.  As an African, this is of deep concern to me.  Because we have a very young population and, in fact, UNICEF assumes that the projection is by 2026 our continent is going to have the majority of children under the age of 18.  So this kind of issue must be central to our concerns.

And while there's a limited awareness in anglophone or English‑speaking countries, I find the discussion around the topic is much weaker in francophone or Musifhone countries.  There's a gentlemen called George Mumbio who almost a decade ago talked about the targeting of defenseless children with precision and ruthlessness.  And I wonder what he would say about he looks at techniques that are available to marketers today.  And so it is very clear that institutions like the Alana Institute in Brazil which hosts this panel and the many civil society organizations in the Middle East in small island developing states, Asia and Africa, clearly need more support to work on this issue.  We need to address the issues of the underserved, the unserved, and those who are yet to be born.  And we need to work together to equip young people, parents and caregivers with the necessary skills to be responsible users and producers of online content.  And we've not talked about producer but many influencers who are used are themselves under age.  UNESCO introduces media and literacy skills to equip users with attitudes online.  And I encourage you to look at those resources. 

Let me now move to the issues around transparency and accountability.

Jeff touched on this.  We're looking at deployment of new business models using sophisticated behavior modification techniques on digital networks and applications.  That are integral to marketing today.  Ubiquity of IOT devices, Internet enabled robots.  Toys, virtual and augmented reality, automated systems that incorporate artificial intelligence and raise additional concerns about data use and privacy protection.

>> Rapid digitalization that's taken place we have to be far more concerns about marketing and context of online education as well as bio technology that allow you to identify by device by identify by user.  So we don't understand what's going on at that level.  There are very few parents that have the time to actually play a game with their kids and understand the nature of the marketing to their children.  But at the same time, accountability is another issue there's a complex web of companies that's involved in marketing to children online as children so on.  And in the countries of global assuming, we see a different kind of marketing that takes into account the fact that legal systems are less sophisticated that standards are less clear as a general lack of awareness.  And so it's more or less a free for all for the marketing companies because they assume nobody cares and nobody knows what's going on.  If you can look at problems that Jeff was talking about in U.S., even when you have legislation, imagine your legislation is just so poor.  Lines of responsibilities are blurred.  And so liability is difficult to prove.  I was advertising standards in the U.K. when they published results of the monitoring of at same time use of AI techniques to help, same time these techniques of AI can help us to monitor children's online lives fact is we don't have data in many countries and certainly in global south would not be able to create chimed.

>> Let me say we need to build an ecosystem of trust grounded in better information in multiple languages.  We need true multistakeholder stakeholder cooperation and use of data analytics to create commercialized advertising for a given child.  And child rights should be the norm.  In closing, let me remind all of us committee on rights of child are drafting general comment on children's rights in relation to the digital environment.  Please sign on and comment and best interests of every child.  My apologies, Isabella.

>> MODERATOR: It is essential that we bring to the conversation the realities that most impact the global south and so also from the global south I internet governance Professor Danilo Donedo adviser of the Alana Institute.  Please.  Danilo.

 >> DANILO DONEDO: Thank you for the invitation,  Honor to be here.  And I thank you also to the other speakers and also tackle the issue of Internet marketing aimed at children.  Usual broadcast that you're in place once they ‑‑ duality now from most of children are growing and other children start to personal data to shape and deliver more accurate efficient messages.  Mainstream.  And this is a regulatory game changer.  It changes a lot of regulatory standards and practices we frame here in Brazil that actual regulatory landscape is several aspects of Internet use.  This a tool.  A tool that can be used both to children and to general public where it has of specific issues where we use on children.  Isabella, nearly one third of Internet users metrics available instruments are not fully effective to tackle issue aimed at children in Internet in these actual shape.

The culture of those new marketing practice data has become difficult.

Because of several reasons, you have apps, games, e‑sports, personal systems, connected and others we cannot think of right now.  But they are being prepared.  So you have the issue of ad messages which are not visible to the general observer that goes strictly to children.  They are kind of something that lecture or process have been marketed as dark messages that exist also for children and have other issues of partners which is a mechanism that doesn't seem ‑‑ are not formally aimed at children but they are designed to be available to appeal to children's use and they can end up gathering children's data.  How can we tackle ‑‑ how can we deal with the new landscape?  Perhaps several proposals.  Some are already placed are based on schemes which can be a bit tricky because of the efficacy which is not completely assured but also because we have the age verification.  Even schemes can create barriers to children to access data, to access information to exercise their freedom of speech and freedom of information rights.  To consider even what what's just said dependent on implementation they can even make why the digital barrier, the digital divide if those barriers depending on specialist conditions that can more easily be in this developing nuances and so on.  Very difficult.  So how can we end up?  It's more of course an ad problem than data protection problem.  The field linked to the data protection issues, considering the nature of exploitation of data in aspects we can link this as more generally as aspects of a more general issue which is customer issue of children which is several current risk.  Children's lack of experience and induction of commercial addition.  There are potential problems regarding algorithm to children.  Based on personalization and including educational practice which is more important right now in children's online educational tools or means to access.  In this sense data protection shall be reviewed.  Main regulatory tool in United States shall be reviewed because of nature.  You have all or nothing.  You have in several ways an instrument that gives access to all children's data.  And we have issue of the responsible ‑‑ a bit tricky because it puts excessive burden on parents or possible on knowledge and responsibility which they are fully aware of consequences which is especially a risky in developing countries.  You don't have a parent to supervise and to exercise fully the nature of the consent.

And to the end, some approaches that are ‑‑ and tools that can be used to tackle problems are firstly, I will mention to go beyond the consent as main tool to regulate.  Several data protection tools which are already present can be framed, may be framed to meet children's needs.

Personal data why for children?  Consent under the discussions on children's data when even data is giving that content as main focus.  So it can be seen also as a contribution as a discussion on the use of single data.  I believe that ‑‑ has mentioned at the henned of her speech on ‑‑ several points of his risk impact assessments.  Especially aiming at considering risks to children and children's data instruments of practice before and design code such as ICU reset contribution to the discussion.  I'm in Brazil.  Consumer risk and protection and new protection law which is a lot that entered into force two months ago and provisions on protection of children with data that may be implemented.  And I hope most modern standards.  Thank you.

>> Thank you very much.

>> MODERATOR: Together we can guarantee the rights and regulations to be more attentive to guarantee their best interests.  And to make the last presentation of the session I invite Jacqueline Stephenson from Mars Global Marketing.  Thank you.

>> JACQUELINE STEPHENSON: Thank you very much for inviting me to this panel.  And it's a real pleasure to be sitting aside experts in this field.  As Isabelle said, I lead global marketing for Mars Globally and response for marketing officer.  And this is a very important subject for Mars.  Mars shows great importance in marketing its brand responsibly.  And we do is that because we think that's the right thing to do.  We are a different company.  We're privately owned.  And with a family and board take responsibility for making sure that all our marketing is done responsibly, and we follow a strict marketing code.  And we know that marketing is hugely powerful.  It reaches consumers, sets trends and behavior change.  It shapes consumer taste presumptions and actions daily and is a powerful force and can influence people in a positive way.  But it also can have very unintended consequences on vulnerable consumers like children when they're not aware they're being targeted for marketing purposes.  For that reason, Mars takes a strong approach.  How we do business today is our five principles, and we believe marketing should be done responsibly.  So we've made a numbering of commitments.  We make sure we're protect vulnerable audiences such as children.  When we use marketing we do so for good and we do it responsibly.

And the way we're marketing code governs marketing commitments is through looking at placement commitments also marketing.  We make rules to third parties they need to follow.  And it's our responsibilities in responsible market to make sure that goes through ecosystem and how messages are delivered to consumers so we take responsible for all of that.

So some of the key commitments on this slide with regard to digital are firstly, that our code is globally applicable.  Every market is treated the same.  Global south versus global north we see the world as one.  Anything new and developing, anything that's emerging is covered naturally by our code.  We protect consumers under the age of 12 in digital.  And we define a child audience is where more than 25% of that audience is over that age.  And we have a clear commitment to not collect data from children under the age of 16.  We take that as a global standard under GDPR, and we use technologies available to us to deliver that standard.  So those are the key commitments from a placement perspective, and we want to make sure that we don't appeal directly to consumers under the age of 13.  We make sure that gatekeepers and parents are ones that make decisions about what their children should eat.  And we make sure techniques do not drive child people.  And we underpin that approach to make sure all our communications are targeted at adults and more universal audiences.  And we take responsibility to govern our characters if we use them in the strictest way so they don't appeal to children.  These are just a handful of the commitments we hold ourselves to.

We need to govern ourselves, and we try to do that holistically.  So ordered ourselves through a third party every single quarter looking at placement as well as content compliance.  That is through our sustainable intergenerational plan.  We also issue a governance report on responsible marketing and marketing code which demonstrates our consults and areas we're working on to improve governance.  You can see we deliver 90%.  And this really makes sure that we are living by what we say.  We're walking the talk.  We're delivering against that policy.  We never ever worked with children ages under 13.  We know children who are under age of 13 are appealing to children.  And we say very ‑‑ we stay well clear of that as a responsible marketing company.  Unfortunately, we're not fully in control of where our ads appear and how our products are used.  And a lot of what you see is use of content we're quoted in article as to our brands were kept in children's, kids influences online.  And that's nothing we endorse.  They were using products within their open content, and we have no control to stop that.  We'd love to stop that.  We don't want our brands appearing this content of kid influences.  Totally against our policy.  But we don't have control to stop that so where we are in control.  We follow strict guidelines and make sure we have full disclosure of our commercial relationship with that influencer.  We do really acknowledge that children should have care and protection.  And this is important online.  And we recognize that.  And hence, where we've been working for many years at doing ‑‑ at evolving our policy to make sure we do the right thing.  There's a very, very difficult challenge of making sure that our commitments balance those needs to protect consumers and also empower their decision making and access to information and education for young consumers, which is particularly important.  I'm a mum of an 11‑ and 13‑year‑old.  And I see the importance that online and social media and being online plays in my own childrens' lives.  And it's important responsible marketing thinks about how best we move forward in this world in a responsible and balanced way and protect those most vulnerable under the age of 13.  We know those under the age of 13 don't understand the marketing communications. They think everything is true.  And they don't critique it and that cognitive ability.  So it's important particularly they're protected.  It is important when older than 13 they're able to make judgments and help by ecosystem and challenges digital world is made.  It's important that brands and advertisers think about that and Dengo make sure ads are distinguishable as advertising.  And we're very careful about what's in the advertising in order to ensure it's responsible and not manipulative and not to young consumers.  So we take that responsibility very seriously.  It's an issue that needs to be addressed.  We don't fully control where our ads turn up.  We do our best to control it as best as we can.  There are massive issues with the Internet around fake news and misinformation.  So we need to make sure that we are playing our role in trying to change this environment of consumers and protect those vulnerable consumers.  And we've done that through being a founding member for Global Alliance of Media and a commitment that advertisers led, and made into companies such as YouTube and Facebook.  And we're focusing on this issue together and looking at how we improve the brand safety as that includes vulnerable consumers such as children.  We're making great effort.  But it's collaborative, and it's important we work together.  When we regulate we have the expertise industry has and make sure that's brought into the regulatory discussion.  I think that's an important point to make.  But Mars is very committed to this:  We see this an issue that there's a lot of work that needs to be done and a broad discussion and industry‑wide issue that needs to be faced.  I'm going to leave that there because I think my time is up.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you.  Mars is a good example for a company that's shown good behavior when it comes to marketing.  I'll tell marina.  We'll take requests.  Each of you will have three minutes to answer and have fine discussions together.

>> MARINA MEIRA: I'll try to sum up the questions that popped up in the chat.  What we understand is that the industry can one step aside and use of technology in children it's hard to understand how it's working and impacts the global south.  So how can we access this sophisticated practices and avoid infringement on children's rights?  What should be the priority of the response?  Should we act to restrict data collection of children or data that is collected and is helpful?  Or does it widen by focusing on given innovations in the global south?  It's a lot of questions.  But it talks about the ways how can we approach them issue?

>> So Jeff, you can start, please.

>> JEFFREY CHESTER: First I want to say thanks to all panelists.  Danilo, you're right.  United States was opposed, could get consensus because it works ever for the longest time.  The new Congress will go beyond and expand.  Regulate practices and not permit consent for children under 16.  So we're very aware of that.  And you're absolutely right.

We do need to work together in terms of civil society organizations.  A lot of that is there.  I'm privileged.  I'm living in the United States.  We have resources.  What institution is doing is not secret.  They publish in so many places.  Over the years.  It provides a stunning documentation of the problem.  Anyway, I think we have to push for global rules, reiterate alliances.  I'm excited about the relationships that groups in the United States are having.  Sharing resources.

>> Thank you, please.

>> I'm busy listening.

>> DOROTHY GORDON: I was really happy to listen to Jacqueline Stephenson and hear and I noticed YouTube.  Because YouTube is the number one in terms of what children are watching.  He experiences a lot of apps, so I'm happy to see they're gone.  As everybody moves forward,, we have to work forward and progress in the global north.  A law is not enough.  We have to increase awareness of problem and what he need to understand what is technically feasible in terms of the problem and what is not.  When putting stresses on children's data, deepening and associations which while self‑regulation is not enough, at least they take us to another level.

>> Thank you, Dorothy.  Please.

>> DANILO DONEDO: I'll be brief.  Regarding Jeff.  We in Brazil knew that regulation as well as G PR there's a focus on children's data.  I don't know in those options of are that may create incentive.  I believe it's our role to have more regulated use of children's ‑‑ and also regarding this, very interesting question was made about efficiency ‑‑ efficiency of regulatory fools in global south.  Not specific for children's rights or children's data.  Framework of data doesn't mean may work on global south children use Internets delivery.  In Brazil we have free access to global Internet.  Some operators have zero rating teams through some applications through What's App.  Limitations of whole Internet.  Internet that most of children ‑‑ have in Brazil.  Main problem would be if something is working in global north may give information of another division.  Of course more action of Internet children in all different shapes of countries.

 >> MODERATOR: Thank you, Danilo Donedo.  Now, Jacqueline Stephenson.

>> I'm conscious we're out of time.  But I want to echo.  It requires global standards and it ‑‑ concept is challenging for parents and adults.  It's even more challenging for children.  And it requires education.  It requires to understand what they give up when they give up their data and for to make more informed decisions, it requires actors in the ecosystem to recognize the need to be special and protection put in place.  There is not enough protection.  And that's notes for kids and that needs to change and children need to access information without being bombarded by advertising. So we can make change and action on this.  It's an important issue which can't be fixed one or two actors changing.

 >> MODERATOR: Thank you very much.  We can see they covered often comfort the same conclusion it's necessary that the market stops commercializing our children.  It's important that no marketing strategies are marketed at children.  They're not exposed to collection of personal data as a way of profit.  It is essential that the digital is a way of best interests and maximum enjoyment of their human rights.  I would like to thank you to invite the film that Alana Institute just released.  The more nature children need.  Thank you very much and stay safe.  Thank you.  

>> Thank you.

>> Thank you.  Isabella.  Thank you, Marina.