The following are the outputs of the captioning taken during an IGF virtual intervention. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.
>> We all live in a digital world.
¶ >> We all need it to be open and safe.
¶We all want to trust.
>> And to be trusted.
¶>> We all despise control.
>> And desire freedom.
>> We are all united!
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Good morning from Buenos Aries, Argentina and good afternoon, good evening wherever you are and welcome to this session. My name is Olga Cavalli, I'm the founder of the South School on Internet Governance. This is award. This is the South School on Internet governance and I would like to thank the government of Poland for organizing this IGF. Unfortunately, we are not able to be there in Poland.
This is my first IGF with not being present. Last year was virtual. But we hope to meet again face‑to‑face, somewhere in the world. This is organized by the South School on Internet Governance by the center of training and high technology of the Caribbean and by CCAT LAT, and Internet Society Argentina chapter.
And let me first thank all of you, especially to my friends and colleagues who are joining with us in this session this morning. My dear friend Claudia Lucena from Brazil. He's with the law faculty at Universidad Estadual, and my dear friend Vanessa Fusco, she's with the government and my dear friend, Nicholas Ferreira, lecturer at University of Duisburg Essen. Thank you very much for being with us this morning for us and afternoon for those of you in Europe.
We have 45 minutes, and the idea of this session is to tell you something some background about the story of the South School of Internet Governance, but at the same time, present a new structure that it has in relation with how many hours are the ‑‑ are the ‑‑ oh, this is very early for me for English ‑‑ the fellows are having and some new features we have, technology includes in the process.
So first, let me share with you a short PowerPoint. I promise. It should not be very long.
And ‑‑ but I want to show you some pictures. No, this is ‑‑ the order is very bad. So 13 years. We started with the school in 2009, as we had this idea of increasing the number of representatives of the region in the Internet ecosystem. Why we have this idea of the school? Because we were participating in Internet Governance meetings in ICANN and IGF, and in other fora, and representation from Latin America was only a few people. Not only few people, they were not very involved and the participation was not very well attended.
We thought it could be good to have a space or to have information to build a network and to have information about the main concepts. It's not very much into each issue, but general concepts of what was going on in the ecosystem. This is how we started and with these three missions and objectives, as I said, the number of representatives of the region in the Internet ecosystem to be increased from the region, to train the future leaders of Internet Governance in the region and grant fellowships to all participants.
So we have never, ever, charged for any of the activities that's we do. Nor the fellowships, nor the book and not the attendance to the ‑‑ to the conference, and to the other activities that we are organize. This is something that we are committed to maintain because we are totally convinced that for Latin America, this is important. Sometimes pain is a big barrier for participants ‑‑ I see the room is empty, but we're here, and don't worry. This is taped and recorded.
So this is some pictures of the first meeting in Buenos Aries in an engineering school, ICVA, where I was a teacher at that time. We were 27 fellows. Then we went to Brazil, Sao Paulo in 2010 and Mexico 2011. As you see the group has grown every year. 2012 in Bogota, I think this was somehow a ‑‑ it changed the story of the school because we moved from, like, 70, 80 students to 200 and then we kept 200 on the following years. Something happened to the PowerPoint, 2013 in Panama, Trinidad Tobago in '14 and then we went again to Brazil and two times in the Organization of American States in 2016 and 2018 in the organization of North American states venue. And something happens with the PowerPoint, sorry.
And then, we went to ‑‑ we moved to a virtual event. We tried to do different virtual events, moving away from the normal school or two dimensions. We tried to make it a little bit more interactive. So we hired a special TV studio to do the broadcasting and we had the participants remotely. And we also tried to include some visual interaction, and some visual features, as you can see in some of the pictures here.
We had ‑‑ I think we had face‑to‑face more than 5,000 fellowships Granted. I have no why how many people have attended virtually. We have here a list of countries that we think participated. What happened with the two last virtual events? We broadened the boundaries of the school because we had fellows from Asia, North America and Europe as well. Usually it's focused in Latin America, but as it's virtual now, it was always virtual also, we always had remote participation, and people are participating virtually in different events and we had people all over the world as fellows.
So we always had a gender balance among the fellows, as much diversity with relation to geography, and where the fellow come from. We grant fellowships to all the candidates, and we include ‑‑ we pay the hotel, the training, the meals and sometimes we pay for the ticket. This is depending on the budget and the needs of some fellows.
And always from day zero, all the activities are translated into English and Spanish by real translators. And when we organize it two times in Brazil, we had translation in three languages, Portuguese, Spanish and English.
So one the new features is we have an application for the fellows. We developed an app. So the fellows can follow all the event from wherever they want with their mobile phone. So they can watch the videos they can interact between each other, through a messaging tool that is included in the application. They can see each other there and they can interact with the expert, of course, if they are willing to get into the application, and they can see the agenda, everything, of course, is in both languages as you can see here, Spanish and English, and here's some ‑‑ you can see some captures of the screen of the application. This is available from now on for all the schools and also it will be available for the Argentina school of Internet Governance that we organized since 2017.
New feature. This is brand new. Why we thought this was important. So every year, we do a survey of satisfaction that was filled by the fellows. They always said we got into the event, but they needed more information before.
So we usually shared with them before reading materials and PowerPoints and some medias, but it seemed to be the case that that was not enough. So we decided to create a new training course, it's asynchronous, and is self‑assisted and with self‑evaluations with ‑‑ we have used tools called kahoot we have special training courses and special podcasts and you can follow all of this training from any type of device, mobile phones, computers and this was done during eight weeks. It's not that they were sitting there for eight weeks. That's too much. It's two or three hours per weeks during eight weeks they were able to watch the videos with the material, and to hear the podcasts.
So this content was specially prepared for the fellows. This year, we had 620 fellows from all over the world, and all of this pretraining course and the course is developed in the two languages, English and Spanish.
These are the new features. All the fellows found it very, very interesting. So in between the two activities we have like 70 hours of training that goes through eight weeks plus the intensive five days of training which is simultaneous that you may have heard about or participated in.
So the target audience is always the same. This is a nice picture in the venue of the organization of the American states, the meeting we organized in 2015. That's Christopher Printer he's a good friend of the school. He comes to very interesting lectures and that's myself there.
So the target audience is those who are interested in Internet Governance but not yet involved in the ecosystem. We really take care of diversity.
This year, we had 3,500 candidates. That was the year that we had the most. This was ministered with the ICT of Colombia, and they have a very, very big network to communicate with the community. And we had a very big Colombian community, from more than 42 countries.
So also we have a book for the tenth anniversary of the school. You can download it from your website, in Spanish, English and Portuguese. It's free. It's very heavy. We decided not to print. It's over 300 pages. It's good for the environment, and it's very heavy to carry and it's very expensive.
It's free for community. You can download it whenever you want from our website.
So also in 2015, we have our three classes. In the last three years we moved to virtual and the same with the school and we have some pictures from ‑‑ this is the last face‑to‑face meeting in Mexico, and this is Mexico. And that's in the organizations of the American states in 2019, and that's it.
So I won't bother you with these pictures but I thought it was really interesting to review the story of the school.
And now, I would like to go to my dear fellows and friends who are with us. Oh, Vanessa, I didn't see you at the beginning. How are you?
So I will ‑‑ I would like to ‑‑ to ask some insights from my dear fellows and friends here and I will start with Vanessa. Vanessa, you made a great contribution to the book. You wrote an article in ‑‑ a chapter in the book, which is, of course, very interesting. And in your role, how do you think about the training spaces of South School of Internet Governance and the interactions between the different organizations of the Internet ecosystem and welcome.
>> VANESSA FUSCO NOGUEIRA: Hello, it's a pleasure for me to be here. We bridge the gaps between two scientific practice. Each one with the laws and the constraints. I have found in the South School of Internet Governance the perfect place to establish an important middle ground aiming to present a reasonable current picture of this challenge.
In the past 11 years that I have been collaborating as an instructor of the school, I have seen on the one hand the technologies and the programs but also on the other hand, the gaps in the legal framework. I have been participating, talking about the challenges. Of the justice system to investigate cybercrimes, but also I have learned a lot ‑‑ I have learned a lot related to the ecosystem of Internet.
It's a new word for a lawyer. In fact, understanding the Internet ecosystem, it's not an easy task for legal professionals, as I am this school has contributed with the interaction of the physical ecosystem, and the multiplicity of interests among the groups involved with the vision of consensus, coordination and cooperation.
Keeping alive the principle of neutrality. The unprecedented coronavirus pandemic is profoundly affecting the global cyber track landscape, compounding global health crisis with cybercriminal activities related to COVID ‑‑ COVID‑19, is putting significant constraint of law enforcement communities.
According to the Interpol private sector partners, a lot of Spam messages. 737 incidents related to malware and 40,000 malicious websites all related to COVID‑19 were detected between January and April 24, 2020.
To maximize the damage and the financial gains, cyber criminals are shifting their targets from individuals and small business to major corporations, governments, and critical infrastructure.
For instance, I see the school of Internet Governance with the mission of contributing to the discussion of the main issues of the digital world, being the interaction with the law each day, more and more present. Nowadays we have another concern, we have another ‑‑ as we use an example, the artificial intelligence, for public safety proposed and election with human rights acts, and possible violations. In my perspective, Olga, the school should be a stage to bring experts to distribute with the discussion related to this use of the artificial intelligence, among other issues in the digital world. Providing proper information also about loss, obligations not just about computer scientists themselves, but also about those who will suffer or enjoy the results of their construction.
For me, as a prosecutor, it's an honor to enjoy this space that the school has provide me, as a government representative, collaborator also with the publications that you mentioned.
I'm sure that the school is already consolidated worldwide as an example of excellence in its environment recognized by professionals because of the democratic process of application, distributing fellowships between participants.
More than anything else, I would like to thank you for the opportunity to be part of this winning project and my best wishes in the new forum. Thank you.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Thank you very much. Do you know how I met Vanessa? We used to organize about the usage of Spanish and Portuguese in the Internet. You remember that? And she contacted me in the IGF environment because she was interested in promoting what she was doing in Brazil with content about ‑‑ of her area of expertise. So thanks to the IGF we have met.
And just for you to know, I sit until school and I learn, because as you already mentioned the Internet ecosystem is very difficult to understand and to capture. Thank you, Vanessa for your nice comment. Nicolas. Nicolas. Hello. He's a very good friend of ours at the school. He lives in Germany. And now he's in Argentina. Good to have you around in this latitude, Nicolas and congratulations for your new appointment in the university of Hamburg. Nicolas, you are a researcher and academic. What do you think about this in the educational field, and welcome to this activity.
>> NICOLAS DIAZ FERREIRA: So first of all, thank you very much for the invitation. I'm a huge fan of the South School of Internet governance. I think it's a terrific initiative, especially within Latin America, and it's a very open project to everyone who wants to share or learn from other experts or share his or her own expertise with the scholars. So I really think you are doing a terrific job, guys. So thumbs up for you and congratulations on this panel.
So maybe for the attendees or what I can identify, especially having worked for more than eight years in ‑‑ with other disciplines. I'm a computer scientist, but my work is entirely related to work in psychology and also law.
So I think that today's major problems regarding internet governance cannot be addressed solely from a single discipline. And I think that the South School provides a forum where experts from different backgrounds and expertise join forces to discuss problems such as privacy, security, AI, trust that require a high degree of interdisciplinary work. So I think that in this way, there are participants become knowledgeable on how complex these problems really are, and this is crucial because at the start, this is ‑‑ at this point, they start to get ready for future work, that will demand a lot of interaction and cooperation with experts from other disciplines.
So I really think that bringing together all of this variety of viewpoints on such a complex issues is very enriching and whoever participates there will in the end realize, oh, okay, I have to stretch myself. I have to go out of my comfort zone and start, you know, browsing other disciplines and other types of work so I can enrich my own ‑‑ my own research, for example, in my case, as a researcher, it's a very enriching experience. Normally, I would say that we academic are somehow inside a box, and we forget that our research has an impact on civil society, has an impact on Internet Governance and shaping a little bit or maybe a lot of our research focus to embrace that impact. It adds a lot of value for the researchers, and ‑‑ and on the other hand, I also ‑‑ I had the chance, for example, to test my hypothesis, to test my findings within the audience of the South School.
I was able to see how people were reacting to. If they liked it, didn't like it, or something to criticize and something to contribute. Every time I have ‑‑ I came back to my office after the South School, I said, oh, okay. This is something that people really appreciate. This is something that they really think it could be applicable in terms of governance and civil society and so on. In some cases I said, oh, people did not get that and this is really critical because I really want to transfer this knowledge and make my point in this way. So for me, it was really good for improving what I was doing at that point.
And as I said, I think it's real. It's great forum in which that ‑‑ that fosters the cooperation between academia, industry, and civil sow site, to a large extent and for example, we normally, when we go to the university and we study specific area of knowledge, we forget that we might end up interesting with people from other backgrounds and it happened to me when we talked about the general data protection network in Europe, we wanted to bring all the provisions of GDPR to a more engineering level. What do we do with the bunch of legal provisions and how do we give them to the engineers so they can do privacy by design?
And at that point, I realized, okay, I am lacking of knowledge. How can I parse that into something that for me, I was alien to law or legal knowledge and I had to work together with people who were experts on law, experts on privacy law in order no transfer that knowledge into engineering tools. So this is my example. This is my experience, and I would definitely encourage ‑‑ I would strongly encourage the academics to join this event, either as a speaker, because it's very ‑‑ it's a very enriching experience. So I congratulate you for the whole ‑‑ so many years of effort and this new format is very promising and I look forward to participating in it.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Nico, you were a fellow in.
>> NICOLAS DIAZ FERREIRA: I was.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: I remember the time you came and talked to me. And something that is very interesting that you mentioned is the network. We didn't organize this event for the networking, but I think it's a fantastic outcome. And from what we do. How we get people related and also experts among them and fellows.
And let me now give the floor to my dear friend Claudio. I met Claudio in Geneva one day. We were in a coffee ‑‑ in a coffee break and a MAG meeting and I invited him to the school. He came and he's also an expert and very well‑recognized expert but he came as a fellow in Costa Rica. So I would like to really recognize ‑‑ thank you for that because I think it was humble for you, coming as a fellow, and how was your experience being a fellow and how did you get into the Internet ecosystem after the school and welcome, Claudio. Good morning. Nice to have you here.
>> CLAUDIO LUCENA: Good morning. Early morning for us here, Olga and good morning for all the other fellows.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: I need coffee.
>> CLAUDIO LUCENA: For Jorge and the other fellows. Olga and Nico have been having practically daily meetings across this week. Thank you again for being here.
Olga, my story in the engagement with Internet Governance, if ‑‑ when we look ‑‑ when I look at the pictures Tau just showed here, it tells an incredibly intense story that happen over the period of six years in my life, which is a very short period in my life, but it's very intense and, of course, South School on Internet Governance Costa Rica is chapter one introduction.
Before that, my work in the area had been in the university, in one single theme and with people who spoke the same language. Nothing could be more wrong when you are trying to develop impact work in Internet Governance. And that changed all together when I was with you in Costa reek, because we saw we were faced with diversity, actual diversity, because the selection process for the fellows touches upon that and then we start seeing in practice the decisions and policies that we only ‑‑ in university, we usually know of or hear of or write about studying, even collect data about it, but we don't see it in practice and then we do on in the South School and then the aspect ‑‑ I remember the first question that a reporter, this Internet Governance, she asked what do you serve it with? It was difficult. It was hard for me to explain to my family why I was leaving home so much because I couldn't construe that very complex knowledge in one sentence, in a two‑minute elevator pitch for them.
And the environment also helped me do so. And then there's the issue, the highlight of multilingualism. Multilingualism is a recurrent them when we discuss Internet governance throughout the world. I don't know of another school on Internet Governance that practices it, that makes effort, that makes effort to serve a regional community like you have been doing along these years. That helped me a lot. I was living back in Europe. Between Lisbon and Brussels when we met, and the South School on Internet Governance also served as a connection for me to the region when I was ‑‑ eventually came back in 2018. I would not have the network that Nico is referring to. I would not have the network, the feeling, the fellows in the region, to work with as I do now, if it hadn't been for the South School on Internet governance.
It actually and then about the impact, it changed the way I did with my post grad students. It's a completely different view that I'm able to offer to them. It's surprising that for a ‑‑ for such a complex theme, for which we need, interdisciplinary and multilingualism, we don't have more initiatives like those. It's a huge effort. I understand that the lack of more initiatives. It's a huge effort, only when we are working with you and the organization for two or three sessions and imagine what you do for the other 30 or 40 sessions.
We know the dimension of the effort that it takes. I'm one of the witnesses that it really pays off. I think you also made a great job in tapping into the needs of what we have after 20‑teen to build a very interactive ‑‑ it's one the best interactive area, where I'm sitting on this chair and not going anywhere else. The mat is interesting and participatory and dynamic and I'm looking forward to the new format and to keep contributing to one of the initiatives that is most dear to me in the ecosystem. Thank you very much and good luck.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Thank you. Thank you very much. I appreciate your words. I see the construction by your site is still going on.
>> CLAUDIO LUCENA: It's still here. I'm muting again.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: That recurring noise in other meetings we had this week with Claudio, which is okay.
And you bring interesting thought about universities. I'm also university teacher and universities still ‑‑ that's okay what they do, but they are still focused on only one issue and it's difficult to move away from there. So I think the school, with this multidisciplinary perspective helps that. And the effort of doing a different format and the effort of the multilingualism is extremely difficult. It's very challenging for budget, very ‑‑ everyone told me from day zero that I was totally crazy. I am. For those of you that know me, you know that I am a crazy person, but we had this idea that it has to be in at least two languages, and we were so lucky. The Brazilians were contributing with that translation into Portuguese. In Rio and in Sao Paulo, they did contribute with the translation in Portuguese, which we do appreciate. We could do it more languages but it's ‑‑ for the moment, we have this Spanish and English.
Thank you very much, Claudio, for your comment.
And now I would like to go to Jorge. Jorge, you are in a party? What is behind you? You have some lights and it's ‑‑
[ speaking Spanish ]
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Well, it's Christmas.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Not yet.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: It is 5:00 in the morning. So ‑‑ and I have not taken yet my coffee so then, well, it's a party. Let's celebrate about this. But a great pleasure.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Jorge, you participated in the first school that we organized in Buenos Aries. That was totally an experiment and many people thought we were totally out of our minds and we not make any success and it would be boring and no would be interested but it was totally the contrary. I remember the night we were singing. You know what I mean?
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Absolutely!
>> OLGA CAVALLI: That was fun. That was very fun. And how can you ‑‑and you have participated in many other editions of the school and especially very much involved in your country Mexico, which I miss a lot. I also miss Brazil a lot. You know I love Brazil and Mexico. You all know that. Can you talk about the evolution over the years?
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Well first of all, Olga, thank you. Thank you very much for your invitation.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Oh, it's a Christmas tree. I see it now. I thought it was a light in the ceiling.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Well, I agree that also Nico told that he fell like an alien about these legal issues or at least the technological issues. Look at the Christmas tree. I think it has been a great experience, being there at the first ‑‑ the first beginning. I do agree that I also thought that you were out of your mind, and of course, I agree with that, and then I felt like Roman says ‑‑ [ Speaking Spanish ]
I connected with you because maybe all of us have this ‑‑ we share this enthusiasm that it's really hard to ‑‑ to get in any project. I remember the first ‑‑ the first edition that all these struggles to have one sponsor. It was a challenge to have one sponsor, or to have one host. It was really ‑‑ I was involved in Mexico, in the organization of the Mexican events, in 20 ‑‑ I think it was 20 ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: 2011. And '19.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: And from drafting the contracts with the hosts, it was a challenge, because when you start a project, many people do not believe that you are going to succeed, and many hurdles, many obstacles you face for having these ‑‑ these editions. 13 years we have been together. I knew you from 2007, when we were having this eCommerce in Montevideo. And I remember that you and said Jorge, the. In edition in 2008, we will be sitting in palace of Martin which is the main venue where the president is received, all the kings, the royalty, the Prime Ministers of the world, and I said, yes, yes, yes, of course.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: He didn't believe it.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Yeah, yeah, yeah. And I believe in Santa Claus. And the point is that the day, the year after that, we were setting in the Palace of Martin and I remember in a coffee break that Olga took me to the main hall where the president was receiving ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: The president was there. She was with another president.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Yeah. From Sweden. And then ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Yes.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: And then Adrian opens the door and Christina says hi, Adri.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: He's joking.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: I was like, okay. So then when ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: But the president was there.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: The president was there and the president was meeting Adrian. And then I say ‑‑ I thought well, these guys have ‑‑ make things happen. And then when you told me when Adrian gave me a call and said, Jorge ‑‑ we were talking with the vice captain. Jorge, we have a small academic event, and we would love you to have you there. And I say, well, okay. Why not? Yes. Yes. Let me reach the agenda and plan to be there.
When I arrived to the first venue, it was a small ‑‑ a spall room, a very small room.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Not the palace.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: No. No. Not the palace. We were having some problems at that stage with the ‑‑ all of this stuff. And then we arrived in a very modest ‑‑ at the modest college but ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: It was ‑‑ one classroom of the university. That's what we had.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: Yeah, and it was great, because, you know, having in that small room, of William Drake, and I say, it will take the adequate place in the time, and we were right. Having I remember we have more than 27 students in that ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: 37, from all the regions, 6 from Argentina but 4 of them were from the provinces not from Buenos Aries. It was very, very diverse.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: And those have their participation in the social networks. It was ‑‑ at that stage, it was very normative. And that ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: Yes.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: And now having more than 620 ‑‑
>> OLGA CAVALLI: 620 this year. We had 3,500 that wanted to. It was too much.
>> JORGE NAVARRO ISLA: It has ‑‑ it is craziness. It is craziness.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: We have two minutes. We have two minutes. Thank you, Jorge, for bringing these nice memories. I didn't remember the thing about the palace.
But for those of you. Palace Martin is the venue of the ministry of foreign affairs but not offices. It's in front of ministry of foreign affairs. Maybe Nico, I have not been there.
>> NICOLAS DIAZ FERREIRA: Unfortunately not.
>> OLGA CAVALLI: It is where the president hosts other presidents and very important meetings. Very, very beautiful meeting. I would say one of the most beautiful buildings in the whole continent. And we had the meeting there. Not the school.
So guys, I have one minute more. I want to thank you very much for your commitment, for your help with the school. The school would not be what it is without your help, without your friendship, and without your knowledge, and best regards from my dear Adrian and also from our dear Oscar Moscano who is the president of the organization, the not‑for‑profit organization that gives us the platform, the administrative platform for this school. Thanks to all of you. Thank you, Alfredo, Monika and other friends in the audience. And I see you virtually and I hope to meet you in person, very, very much. In Brazil or Mexico or here in beautiful Argentina. My thanks to all of you.